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Learning Point DetailsScenario(s)
Vitamin D metabolism and deficiencyChild with abnormal gait
Iron absorption, transportation and storage; role of hepcidinHaemochromatosis
Iron metabolismUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Iron, vitamin B12 and folate absorptionChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport in the bloodAnaemia
Anatomy of mouth (including teeth and tongue), pharynx, larynx, vocal cords, trachea, vertebral column, meninges, spinal cord, jugular veinsPreoperative assessment and management
Anatomy of mouth, nasopharynx, pharynx and larnrynx airwayUpper airway disease
Anatomy of the middle earGlue ear
Depressive pseudodementiaDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Anatomy and function of the skinBurns
Anatomy of the epidermis and dermisAdult eczema
Microanatomy of the dermis and epidermisBlisters
Physiological effects of significant skin loss from cutaneous drug reactionsBlisters
Histopathology of melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinomaSkin tumours
Radiology of thorax, including high-resolution CT scanChronic sputum production
Virchow's triadDeep vein thrombosis
Normal ECG and how it correlates with the cardiac cycle; how a 12 level ECG is generated from 10 leads; calculate the QTc intervalArrhythmias
Anatomy of skin and underlying soft tissueSuperficial injuries
Anatomy and physiology of the skinSkin and soft tissue infection
Staphylococcus aureus/streptococci/Haemophilus influenzae type b and non-typableChild with red swelling around one eye
Acquired and inherited abnormalities of plateletsInfant or child with easy bruising
Acquired and inherited disorders of red cells and bone marrowInfant or child with pallor
Acute phase reactants in acute /chronic inflammationHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Adaptive processes in a limb with chronic ischaemiaChronic limb pain
Adherence to medication; drug interactionsContraception
Adverse drug reactions of antimicrobial agentsUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Aetiology and pathogenesis of conductive and sensorineural hearing lossHearing loss
Aetiology and pathogenesis of deep vein thrombosis and hospital-acquired pneumoniaPostoperative care
Aetiology and pathogenesis of nasal polyps, anterior and posterior epistaxis, nasopharyngeal carcinomaEpistaxis
Aetiology and pathophysiology of heart failureHeart failure
Aetiology of cardiac arrestOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Aetiology of cerebral hypoperfusionUnexplained loss of consciousness
Aetiology of intracerebral bleedsAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Aetiology of shoulder dislocationsDislocated joint
Anaerobic and aerobic respiration; products of anaerobic respirationChronic limb pain
Anatomical features relevant to hernia formationGroin lump
Anatomy (and imaging) of the respiratory tract - mediastinum, lobar anatomy including surface markings, pulmonary and bronchial blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves, thoracic wallHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Anatomy and common pathologies of the salivary glandsNeck lump
Anatomy and function of upper airwayDaytime sleepiness
Anatomy and function of each of the extraocular musclesDiplopia
Anatomy and function of reticuloendothelial systemFever and adenopathy
Anatomy and function of the biliary tree and pancreasPatient with jaundice
Anatomy and function of the breast and how the breast changes during pregnancy and lactationPostpartum care
Anatomy and function of the breast and how the breast changes during puberty, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, breastfeeding and menopauseBreast lump and screening
Anatomy and function of the extraocular musclesInfant with strabismus
Anatomy and function of the female reproductive tractHeavy menstrual periods, Pregnancy diagnosis, Dysuria
Anatomy and function of the gastrointestinal tractDiarrhoea
Anatomy and function of the lower urinary tract and pelvic floorUrinary incontinence in women
Anatomy and function of the lymphatic systemNeck lump
Anatomy and function of the lymphatic system, including the spleen and thymusLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Anatomy and function of the male and female reproductive tractsInfertility
Anatomy and function of the normal female reproductive tractPostmenopausal bleeding
Anatomy and function of the perineum and pelvic floorLabour
Anatomy and function of the placentaVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Anatomy and function of the renal tractFlank pain and dysuria
Anatomy and function of the respiratory tractPneumonia
Anatomy and function of the respiratory tract including larynx/upper airway; microanatomy of airwaysSudden onset shortness of breath
Anatomy and pathology of intraocular pressureWatery eye in an infant
Anatomy and pathophysiology of neural pathways involved in seizureEpilepsy / seizure
Anatomy and physiology of haematopoiesisAnaemia
Anatomy and physiology of liver and biliary tractInfant with jaundice
Anatomy and physiology of micturition and its disturbance with outflow obstructionElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Anatomy and physiology of pulmonary vasculatureSudden onset shortness of breath
Anatomy and physiology of tear production and drainageWatery eye in an infant
Anatomy and physiology of the brainAltered level of consciousness in a child
Anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal tractFailure to thrive
Anatomy and physiology of the heart and lungsPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Anatomy and physiology of the liver, pancreas, adrenal glands and upper airwayObesity
Anatomy and physiology of the retina, the retinal vascular supply, the optic nerve and the visual tracts within the brainSudden painless loss of vision
Anatomy and physiology of the skeletal system (bone and joints, including fetal development)Child with abnormal gait
Anatomy and physiology of the upper respiratory tractNeonatal stridor
Anatomy and physiology of thyroid glandHypothyroidism
Anatomy and physiology of urinary tractChild with generalised swelling
Anatomy of abdomen, thorax and pelvisPostoperative complications
Anatomy of bone and joints including epiphysesChild with sore joints
Anatomy of coronary arteries and veinsAcute chest pain
Anatomy of hearing and balanceDizziness and vertigo
Anatomy of liver and portal circulationAlcohol
Anatomy of lymphoid tissue including cervical, submandibular and jugulodigastric nodes, and spleenSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Anatomy of outer, middle and inner earHearing loss
Anatomy of respiratory tract (pleura, trachea, bronchi, lungs and diaphragm)Chronic shortness of breath
Anatomy of respiratory tract; particularly airwaysChronic sputum production
Anatomy of spinal column and spinal cordChronic limb pain
Anatomy of the abdomen and pelvisBowel obstruction, Adult with abdominal mass
Anatomy of the abdomen and thoraxPenetrating chest trauma
Anatomy of the abdomen, pelvis, femoral and inguinal canalsAcute abdominal pain
Anatomy of the abdominal aorta, its branches and relationsAAA screening
Anatomy of the adnexal structures of the eye (lids, lacrimal structures)Acute trauma to the eye
Anatomy of the adrenal glandsAdrenal crisis
Anatomy of the blood supply to the eye, with particular focus on the retinal circulationAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Anatomy of the bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous structures of the kneeKnee injury
Anatomy of the brainAgitated and combative patient
Anatomy of the cerebral circulationStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Anatomy of the cerebral structures associated with memoryDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Anatomy of the cerebrum and cerebellumSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Anatomy of the cervical spine and craniumNeck injury
Anatomy of the cervix and vulvaAbnormal cervical smear result
Anatomy of the conjunctiva, limbus, cornea and anterior chamber of the eyeAcute trauma to the eye
Anatomy of the cranium and meningesAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Anatomy of the elbow, forearm and wristForearm / wrist injury
Anatomy of the entire airway-upper and lower; microanatomy of airwaysCompromised airway
Anatomy of the external eye and anterior chamber - lashes to lensAcute or chronic red eye
Anatomy of the eye with focus on the choroid and retinaGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Anatomy of the eyelid, orbit, orbital septum, glands in the eyelid, lacrimal gland, extraocular muscles and contents of the orbitChild with red swelling around one eye
Anatomy of the female reproductive tractPostpartum care, Gynaecological abdominal pain
Anatomy of the fetal heart and fetal and postnatal circulationInfant or child with a murmur
Anatomy of the gastrointestinal tractChronic bowel motility problems, Chronic upper abdominal symptoms
Anatomy of the growing skeletonOsteomyelitis
Anatomy of the hand and wristHand injury
Anatomy of the head and neckHead trauma
Anatomy of the head, neck and brainSudden onset severe headache
Anatomy of the heartValvular heart disease
Anatomy of the heart and cardiovascular systemFever and a new murmur
Anatomy of the heart and thoraxOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Anatomy of the hip joint, pelvis and femur including blood supply to the femoral headHip fracture
Anatomy of the hypothalamus and pituitary glandDiabetes insipidus
Anatomy of the inguinal canal, femoral triangle and veins of the lower limbsGroin lump
Anatomy of the iris including sphincter and dilator musclesPupil abnormality
Anatomy of the knee jointKnee pain
Anatomy of the liver and biliary tree; include microscopic detail of lobulesChronic liver disease
Anatomy of the liver and its functions; include microscopic detail of lobules and the relationship between the portal and hepatic blood supplies and the bile ductulesPatient with jaundice
Anatomy of the lower gastrointestinal tract and pelvisRectal bleeding
Anatomy of the lower limb - inguinal region, thigh, leg and footMusculoskeletal lump
Anatomy of the meningesFever and headache
Anatomy of the musculoskeletal and autonomic nervous systemsFalls and collapses
Anatomy of the neckNeck lump
Anatomy of the neural motor pathwaysNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Anatomy of the neurovascular structures of the lower limbKnee injury
Anatomy of the nose, nasopharnyx, sinuses and facial bonesEpistaxis
Anatomy of the optic nerve head and optic nerveSudden loss of vision and headache
Anatomy of the oropharynx, larynx, oesophagus, lungs and thoraxDysphagia
Anatomy of the pituitary gland and hypothalamusPanhypopituitarism
Anatomy of the rectum, anal canal, perineum and anusPerianal pathology
Anatomy of the respiratory systemChild with respiratory distress
Anatomy of the shoulder and the rotator cuff musclesShoulder pain
Anatomy of the skull and brain; structures responsible for maintaining consciousnessUnexplained loss of consciousness
Anatomy of the thoracic cavityChronic illness in paediatrics
Anatomy of the upper and lower airwaysFood allergy in paediatrics, Upper respiratory tract symptoms
Anatomy of the upper gastrointestinal tract and vascular supply to the gastrointestinal tractUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Anatomy of the upper limb, including nerve and vascular structures at riskDislocated joint
Anatomy of the vascular supply to the eyeAcute trauma to the eye
Anatomy of the vertebral column and paraspinal structuresNon-specific back pain
Anatomy of venous systemDeep vein thrombosis
Anatomy of vertebral column, kidneys, ureters, bladder, spinal cordPostoperative care
Anatomy relevant to congenital anomalies6 week check
Anatomy, physiology and embryologic development of the ear and auditory systemCongenital hearing loss
Anti-hypertensive drugs that are safe in early pregnancySecondary hypertension
Anxiety disorders due to more common medical conditionsAnxiety disorder
Applied anatomy relevant to the surgical and interventional treatment approaches for heavy menstrual bleeding (endometrial ablation, polypectomy, myomectomy, hysterectomy, uterine artery embolisation)Heavy menstrual periods
Appreciate the common knee injury patternsKnee injury
Arterial supply and venous drainage of the limbsChronic limb pain, Acutely painful limb
Aspects of the chronobiology and metabolic syndromeDaytime sleepiness
Atherosclerotic plaque structure and relationship to clinical presentationStable angina
Autoimmune phenomena including rheumatic feverOsteomyelitis
Awareness of a variety of violent and non-violent methods of self-harm including cutting, shooting, drowning, hanging, high-speed impact, jumping from a height, neglect and the risk levels associated with theseSelf-harm
Awareness of nutritional deficiencies and how this may compound certain presentations e.g. delirium tremensAgitated and combative patient, Alcohol and drug dependence disorders
Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesionsDislocated joint
Basic biomedical statistics and their application in researchClinical audit
Basic features of blood group antigens and antibodies; Rh(D) statusVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Basic principles of the development of neoplastic disordersEpistaxis
Basic understanding of genetic laboratory techniques including polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing and microarray analysisFamily with a genetic disorder
Biochemistry of tumour markersAdult with abdominal mass
Biochemistry of urate production and excretionGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology of paracetamol and iron supplements when taken in overdoseOverdose in a child or adolescent
Biological and endocrinological changes during the menopausal transition phaseMenopause, Breast lump and screening
Biology of platelet production and functionInfant or child with easy bruising
Biology of skin cancer including photo-carcinogenesis and repair of ultraviolet (UV) damageSkin tumours
Biopsychosocial theories of the aetiology of bipolar affective disorderBipolar affective disorder
Blood supply and lymphatic drainage of the testes and scrotumAcute severe testicular pain
Blood supply of the scaphoid and relevance to fracture healing (avascular necrosis)Hand injury
Blood transfusion in pregnancyVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Body's responses to metabolic and respiratory acidosisAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Bone mineralisation and its controlHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Brain structures responsible for maintaining consciousnessHead trauma
Calcium absorption and homeostasis; transportation of calcium in serum with binding to albuminHypercalcaemia and back pain
Cancer-associated mutations and targeted chemotherapyHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Carcinogenesis, including occupational and environmental predisposition to formation of urothelial and renal tumoursGross haematuria
Causes and investigation of pleural fluidPneumonia
Causes of cerebral palsy and neonatal seizuresLabour
Causes of end-stage renal failureChild with generalised swelling
Cell function and effects of ischaemiaStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Cellular and cytokine controls of inflammationCompromised airway
Cellular and molecular basis of autoimmunityNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Cellular regulation and utilisation of energy storesAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Central and peripheral neurological controls of posture, balance and gaitFalls and collapses
Cerebrospinal fluid, blood brain barrier and kernicterusInfant with jaundice
Cerebrovascular anatomy in relation to cranial nerve IIIPupil abnormality
Changes in bone and lipid metabolism, vessel dynamics, thermoregulatory centre, hair and skin during menopausal transitionMenopause
Changes in cardiac enzymes post-myocardial infarctionAcute chest pain
Changes in physiology observed at low body weightEating disorders
Changes in the female reproductive tract during menopausal transitionMenopause
Changes in the respiratory tract including airway, cardiovascular and nervous systems in the unconscious patientAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Characterisation of systolic and diastolic murmurs, including gradingValvular heart disease
Characteristics and clinical potential of stem cells; embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, induced pluripotent (iPS) cellsPancytopenia
Characteristics of post-partum psychosisPostpartum care
Characteristics of multifactorial diseases; associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms and identification of genes with a causal role; personalised and precision medicineDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and control of CSF volumeUnexplained loss of consciousness
Classification and course of the anxiety disordersAnxiety disorder
Classification and function of lymphocyte typesFever and adenopathy
Classification and pathology of diffuse lung diseaseWorsening shortness of breath
Classification of strokeStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Classification of the vasculitides by size of vessel involvedHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Classify the different types of intracranial bleedsSudden onset severe headache
Clinical toxicology in the paediatric populationOverdose in a child or adolescent
Coagulation; risk factors for and mechanisms of thromboembolismSudden onset shortness of breath
Cognitive changes associated with low weight (including perceptual distortion)Eating disorders
Colonisation with S. aureus and S. pyogenesSkin and soft tissue infection
Common causes and pathology of bacterial endocarditisFever and a new murmur
Common causes of acquired diplopiaDiplopia
Common fractures of forearm and wristForearm / wrist injury
Common genetic mutations in haemochromatosisHaemochromatosis
Common infections in immunocompromised patientsPancytopenia
Common infective organisms in ulcersChronic limb pain
Common injury mechanisms and associated fractures of the cervical spineNeck injury
Common pathogens and microbiology of perinatal infection (differences between neonates and older infants/children)Febrile infant
Common pathogens and microbiology of ear infectionsGlue ear
Common pathogens causing bone and joint infectionChild with sore joints
Common pathologies of the renal tract, including common sites of calculiFlank pain and dysuria
Common pathologies of the retina, the retinal vascular supply and the optic nerveSudden painless loss of vision
Common patterns of injury in the handHand injury
Common teratogens including medications, illicit drugs, alcoholFetal health
Compartment syndrome and acute limb ischaemiaAcutely painful limb
Composition of normal urine and its alteration in diseaseFlank pain and dysuria
Concept of somatisationAnxiety disorder
Concept of paraneoplastic syndromeHypercalcaemia and back pain
Congenital infections (TORCHHS; toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), HIV, herpes simplex virus, syphilis) and perinatally acquired infectionsUnwell neonate
Consequences of impairment of lung defence mechanismsChronic sputum production
Contribution of patient-clinician and healthcare system factors to the development of and maintenance of symptomsMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Control of breathing; physiology of upper airway during breathing; physiology of sleep and control of breathing during sleepDaytime sleepiness
Controls of antidiuretic hormone (ADH; also known as vasopressin) releaseDiabetes insipidus
Controls of consciousness and pain pathways, neuromuscular junction, ventilation, cardiac output, body fluid compartmentsPreoperative assessment and management
Cranial nerves III, IV, VI and their innervation of extraocular musclesDiplopia
CT anatomy of the thoraxWorsening shortness of breath
Current biopsychosocial theories of alcohol dependence in older peopleMajor depressive episode
Current biopsychosocial theories of the aetiology of depression in older peopleMajor depressive episode
Current biopsychosocial theories of the aetiology of personality disordersPersonality disorder
Current biopsychosocial theories of the aetiology of anxiety disordersAnxiety disorder
Current biopsychosocial theories of the aetiology of medically unexplained physical symptoms (somatoform disorders, factitious disorder, malingering)Medically unexplained physical symptoms
Current biopsychosocial theories of the aetiology of alcohol and substance dependenceAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Current biopsychosocial theories of the aetiology of schizophreniaAcute psychosis
Current biopsychosocial theories of the aetiology of anorexia nervosaEating disorders
Current biopsychosocial theories of the causation of disruptive behaviour disordersDisruptive behaviour disorder
Current hypotheses explaining migraineSudden onset severe headache
Current hypotheses underlying aetiology of the metabolic syndromeGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Currently accepted theories relating to appetite and hunger regulationEating disorders
Currently accepted theory of pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitusType 2 diabetes mellitus
Define 'triad of anaesthesia', total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) and definitive airwayPreoperative assessment and management
Define the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck (and lymph node groups)Neck lump
Define the metabolic syndromeType 2 diabetes mellitus
Definition and mechanism of amaurosis fugaxSudden painless loss of vision
Definition and mechanisms of acute kidney injury; pathology of acute renal failure: prerenal, renal, postrenalAcute kidney injury
Definition and pathophysiology of 'metabolic syndrome'; role in the development of atherosclerosisObesity
Definition of dementia and deliriumDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Definition of food allergy as an adverse immunologic reaction to a food proteinFood allergy in paediatrics
Describe Breslow depth and the implication for prognosis of melanomaSkin tumours
Describe genome organisation, gene structure, the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA and protein, DNA replication, DNA repair and the cell cycleFamily with a genetic disorder
Describe modes of inheritance including autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked and mitochondrialFamily with a genetic disorder
Describe principles of dose-response relationships, drug distribution and repeated drug dosingHeart failure
Describe the different epithelial cells along the urinary tractGross haematuria
Describe the different types of mutations and explain their predicted consequences; somatic vs germline, phenotypic expression (loss-of-function vs gain-of-function)Family with a genetic disorder
Describe the genetic basis of cancer; oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, genes that control cell death, DNA repair genesInfant with an altered light reflex
Describe the major peripheral blood and bone marrow abnormalities observed in leukaemiasPancytopenia
Describe the near and accommodative reflex, with reference to accommodative esotropiaInfant with strabismus
Describe the visual pathways, neurological development, pathology and treatment of amblyopiaInfant with strabismus
Design of clinical studies: treatment (randomised, nonrandomised) and observational (cohort, case-control)Pancytopenia
Determine blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressureSecondary hypertension
Development and role of T and B lymphocytes; describe humoral and cell-mediated immune responsesLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Development and role of the myeloid cells: red blood cells, platelets, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophilsPolycythaemia
Development of mature blood cells from haematopoietic stem cells and the role of cytokinesPancytopenia
Developmental and DSM-IV criteria for intellectual disabilityChronic illness in paediatrics
Developmental patterns of learning disordersDisruptive behaviour disorder
Developmental tasks in middle ageAnxiety disorder
Diagnosis of pneumonia (microbiologic, molecular), including sputum analysisPneumonia
Dietary sources, absorption, transportation, storage and role of iron, folate, and vitamin B12Anaemia
Difference between a syndrome, a sequence and an association; explain dysmorphologyFetal health
Difference between primary, secondary and tertiary adrenal insufficiencyAdrenal crisis
Differences between food intolerance and food allergy (e.g. lactose intolerance vs. peanut anaphylaxis)Food allergy in paediatrics
Different pelvic types and fetal positions and the consequences of theseLabour
Different types of suture and classification of suture materialsSuperficial injuries
Different types of hypersensitivity reactionCompromised airway
Differentiate pathology of Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitisPerianal pathology
Differentiation between ageing and menopauseMenopause
Differing characteristics of an extradural, subdural, subarachnoid and intracerebral bleedHead trauma
Disease 'clustering': current hypotheses of infectious and genetic associations in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA)Headache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Distinction between apparent, primary, and secondary polycythaemiaPolycythaemia
Distinction between monoclonal and polyclonal populations of lymphocytesLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Drug absorption, metabolism and excretionSelf-harm, Overdose in a child or adolescent
Drug dosing and calculationsOverdose in a child or adolescent
DSM-IV classification of personality disordersPersonality disorder
DSM-IV criteria for psychotic disorders including schizophreniaAcute psychosis
DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for bipolar affective disorder and other relevant psychiatric diseaseBipolar affective disorder
DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for psychiatric diseaseMajor depressive episode
Effect of ischaemia and vascular growth factors on vascular function; effect of ultra-violet light on the eye; effect of oxidative damage to tissueGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Effects at toxic dose of calcium channel blockers, beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs, digoxin, opioids, aspirin, paracetamol, warfarin and tricyclic antidepressantsAccidental overdose
Effects of hypertension on the kidneyAcute kidney injury
Effects of hypertension on the kidney and the effect of renal disease on blood pressureChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Effects of ischaemia and vaso-proliferative cytokines on tissueAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Effects of medicines on sleepDaytime sleepiness
Effects of parental separation on children's emotional stateDisruptive behaviour disorder
Effects on the eye of commonly used eye dropsGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Electrophysiology of ventricular tachycardia and fibrillationOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Embryological development of the fetus, including role of folate and iodineFetal health
Embryological origin of testes, including their passage to the scrotumGroin lump
Embryology and anatomy of genitourinary tract and gastrointestinal systemAbdominal or inguinal lump
Embryology and fetal development of gut and congenital abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tractChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents, Acute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Embryology, structure, function and pathologies of gut and genitourinary systemChild with disorder of elimination
End-organ effects of ADHDiabetes insipidus
Endocrine and exocrine functions of pancreasType 1 diabetes mellitus
Endocrine regulation of the normal menstrual cyclePregnancy diagnosis
Endocrinology of appetite, glucose metabolism, hypothalamic pituitary axisOsteomyelitis
Endometrial and tubo-ovarian pathology including hyperplasia and neoplasiaPostmenopausal bleeding
Epidemiology of upper respiratory tract infections from infancy to old age, including usual mechanisms of transmissionUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Epigenetic effects: genomic imprinting, DNA methylation in cancerFamily with a genetic disorder
Epilepsy syndromesAltered level of consciousness in a child
Explain common terminology (phoria, tropia, exo, eso, ortho), underlying causes of, and treatment for strabismusInfant with strabismus
Explain developments in the field of 'regenerative medicine'; outline how a haematopoietic stem cell transplant is undertakenPancytopenia
Explain genotype/phenotype correlation and discordance in phenotype within families with genetic disordersFamily with a genetic disorder
Explain that: psoriasis can be associated with inflammatory psoriatic arthritis; severe early-onset chronic large-plaque psoriasis is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseaseRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Explain the difference between grade and stage of a tumourBreast lump and screening
Explain the effect of a sensory neuropathy on the skinBlisters
Explain the mechanism of histamine release due to allergic and non-allergic pathways and explain the role of IgE in type I hypersensitivity responsesFacial swelling and itchy rash
Extent of involvement of upper respiratory tract (including sinuses, Eustachian tubes and middle ear) in viral respiratory tract infectionsUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Extra-thyroid manifestations of Graves' diseaseHyperthyroidism
Factor deficiencies, genetic diseases and conditions that create a procoagulant environmentDeep vein thrombosis
Factors contributing to the closure of the ductus arteriosusInfant or child with a murmur
Factors that exacerbate painMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Features of autoimmune disease, including rheumatic feverChild with sore joints
Fetal oxygenation and normal/abnormal acid base balanceLabour
Fetal development of gastrointestinal tractInfant with jaundice
Fetal development of the respiratory system and congenital anomaliesChild with respiratory distress
Finding reliable information about drugsMenopause
Fistula pathogenesisPerianal pathology
Flow dynamics, Starling's curve and principles of vascular resistanceAcutely painful limb
Function of the rotator cuffDislocated joint
Genetic abnormalities in lymphoproliferative disorders and their roles in tumour growthLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Genetic and environmental factors contributing to ankylosing spondylitisInflammatory low back pain
Genetic basis of autoimmune disease, including relevance of HLA groupsSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands, Swollen and tender joints
Genetic basis of red cell disorders (e.g. thalassaemia, sickle cell anaemia)Infant or child with pallor
Genetic polymorphisms that alter individual responses to drugsOverdose in a child or adolescent
Genetic predisposition to gastric cancerChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Genetic, molecular and cellular differences between normal prostate gland, benign and neoplastic growthElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Genetics and pathology of hereditary bowel cancerRectal bleeding
Genetics of eating disordersEating disorders
Genetics of Alzheimer's diseaseDelirium / dementia
Genetics of Alzheimer's disease and other illnesses associated with dementiaDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Genetics of colorectal malignancyBowel obstruction
Genetics of Duchenne muscular dystrophy; creatine kinase (CK) screening early to allow informed family planningChild with abnormal gait
Genetics of familial breast cancerGenetic testing information, Breast lump and screening
Genetics of hearing loss (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked deafness)Congenital hearing loss
Genetics of inherited coagulation abnormalities: haemophilia, von Willebrand diseaseInfant or child with easy bruising
Genetics of inherited haemoglobinopathies and thalassaemiasAnaemia
Genetics of trisomy 21 (classic/mosaicism/translocation)Fetal health
Glucose and cholesterol homeostasisObesity
Glucose homeostasisType 2 diabetes mellitus
Glucose homeostasis in fetus and newbornUnwell neonate
Glucose homeostasis in the newbornDiabetes in pregnancy
Grades of burn (ANZBA 2004 Classification) and implications for prognosis and managementBurns
Haemostasis of temperature controlBurns
Healing processes for bones and jointsForearm / wrist injury
Help-seeking behaviour of young people: barriers and enablersSelf-harm
Histopathological changes in the heart during prolonged ischaemiaStable angina
Histopathology and natural history of meningiomas, gliomas, neurofibromas and pituitary tumoursSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Histopathology of testicular tumours and their metastasesAcute severe testicular pain
Histopathology of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomasLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Histopathology of bladder cancerGross haematuria
Histopathology of coeliac disease and cystic fibrosisFailure to thrive
Histopathology of hepatitis and cirrhosisChronic liver disease
Histopathology of oesophageal cancerDysphagia
Histopathology of oesophagitis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancerChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Homeostasis of red blood cells; describe how clinical conditions such as hypoxia can lead to polycythaemiaPolycythaemia
Hormonal control of prostate growth and its role in benign prostatic enlargement and cancerElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): risks, benefits, costs, regulationGenetic testing information
Hormones produced by the pituitary and their synthesis; pituitary hormones required for survivalPanhypopituitarism
Hormones secreted by the adrenal glands; mechanism of action of adrenal hormonesAdrenal crisis
Host response to bacterial infectionSkin and soft tissue infection
How chest compressions generate blood pressureOut of hospital cardiac arrest
How vaccinations induce an immune responsePatient with jaundice, Superficial injuries, Needlestick injury
Identify important myotomes and dermatomesNeck injury
IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions; other immunological mechanisms that occur (intolerance, hypersensitivity, sensitisation)Food allergy in paediatrics
Imaging modalities for assessment of vasculatureAAA screening
Immune mechanisms of acute and chronic inflammationSwollen and tender joints
Immune response following immunisationUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Immune-mediated disease: immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), Henoch-Schonlein vasculitisInfant or child with easy bruising
Immunological basis for lymphadenopathyGroin lump
Immunological response to microorganismsNeedlestick injury
Immunology and immunisations (rotavirus)Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Immunology and microbiology of common vaccine preventable diseaseBefore school check
Immunology of allergic contact dermatitisAdult eczema
Immunology of autoimmune diseasePainful hands in the cold
Immunology of diffuse lung diseaseWorsening shortness of breath
Immunology of eczema and atopyItching child
Immunology of post-streptococcal sequelae including post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis and rheumatic feverSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Immunopathology of SLESLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Immunopathology of post-streptococcal diseaseChild with generalised swelling
Immunophysiology of vasculitis /angiitis /arteritisHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Infant nutrition and nutrient absorptionFailure to thrive
Infectious pathogens of gastroenteritis; association with haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS)Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Inheritance of disease - phenotype-genotype correlationsChronic sputum production
Inheritance of single gene and multifactorial genetic disordersHaemochromatosis
Innate immune function of the airwaysUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Innervation of the heartStable angina
Interpret a pedigree from a family with a genetic disorderHaemochromatosis
Intoxication, misuse, abuse and dependence definitionsSelf-harm
Investigation of bacterial meningitis including microscopy and culture, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)Fever and headache
Ion and water transport; relevance to disease and pharmacologyChronic sputum production
Know the common food allergens (cow’s milk, egg, peanut account for 75% of early food allergy) with other common allergens including fish, shellfish, tree nuts, kiwifruit, sesame, wheat and soyFood allergy in paediatrics
Knowledge of bacterium Propionibacterium acnesPimples and rash on the face
Knowledge of disorders that affect multiple organ systems which are important to exclude; e.g. autoimmune disordersMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Knowledge of the aetiology/risk factors for sensorineural hearing lossCongenital hearing loss
Knowledge of the prevalence of congenital hearing lossCongenital hearing loss
Legal aspects of prescribing, prescribing outside marketing authorisationMenopause
List common drugs used in overdose and their antidotesSelf-harm
List the major developmental milestonesFetal health
Long term sequelae of high body weightChildhood obesity
Lung defence mechanisms including cellular and immunologic mechanisms; mucociliary clearanceChronic sputum production
Lung defence mechanisms including cellular and immunologic mechanisms; mucociliary clearance; consequences of impairmentPneumonia
Lung defence mechanisms including cellular and immunologic mechanisms; mucociliary clearance; consequences of impairment of lung defence mechanismsHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Lymphatic vs haematogenous spread of cancerDysphagia
Major fetal chromosomal abnormalities (aneuploidy)Fetal health
Mechanics including lung volumes, flows and compliance; work and physiological control of breathingChronic shortness of breath
Mechanism and diagnosis of stridorSudden onset shortness of breath
Mechanism of action and clinical indications for psychostimulant medication in childrenDisruptive behaviour disorder
Mechanism of action and dose-response relationship for beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs; define agonist, antagonist, partial agonistAcute chest pain
Mechanism of action of penicillins, extended spectrum penicillins, aminoglycosides, clavulanic acid, metronidazole, gyrase inhibitors, opioids, paracetamol and ondansetronAcute abdominal pain
Mechanism of action of menopause-related drug therapy; complementary and alternative medicinesMenopause
Mechanism of action of targeted immunotherapy (e.g. rituximab)Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Mechanism of action of targeted therapy in myeloproliferative neoplasms (e.g. imatinib)Polycythaemia
Mechanism of action of the methods of contraceptionContraception
Mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of anticonvulsant drugs and drug interactionsEpilepsy / seizure
Mechanism, physiology and diagnosis of stridorUpper airway disease
Mechanisms and stages of labour and birthLabour
Mechanisms and controls of vomiting and peristalsisBowel obstruction
Mechanisms by which gene mutations are involved in the initation and progression of cancerAdult with abdominal mass
Mechanisms by which gene mutations are involved in the initation and progression of cancer; acquired (somatic cell) and inherited mutationsRectal bleeding
Mechanisms controlling haemostasis: platelets and coagulation factorsSuperficial injuries, Penetrating chest trauma, Chronic liver disease
Mechanisms controlling haemostasis: platelets and coagulation factors. Laboratory assessment of these including effects of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agentsDeep vein thrombosis
Mechanisms of diarrhoea: secretory, osmotic and invasiveDiarrhoea
Mechanisms of haemostasis, thrombus formation and its disturbance during pregnancy and the puerperiumPostpartum care
Mechanisms of haemostasis: platelets and the coagulation cascadeUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Mechanisms of hypoxic cellular injury including late apoptosisOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Mechanisms of interactions between medicationsAccidental overdose
Mechanisms of sexual arousal, intercourse and orgasm/ejaculationInfertility
Mechanisms that promote thirstDiabetes insipidus
Mechanisms that promote venous blood flow in the lower limbsDeep vein thrombosis
Mechanisms underlying systemic symptoms resulting from inflammationPainful hands in the cold
Mechanisms, pathology and microbiology of aspiration pneumonia and lung abcess (and empyema)Haemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Medication use in early pregnancyPregnancy diagnosis
Medication use in early pregnancy; reliable sources of drug informationRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Medications for bipolar disorder and their associated pharmacology and monitoring requirements e.g. lithium, sodium valproate, lamotrigine, carbamazepine and antipsychoticsBipolar affective disorder
Metabolic disease and newborn screening6 week check
Metabolism of calcium and phosphate and mechanism of renal calculi formationFlank pain and dysuria
Metabolism of T3 and T4Hypothyroidism
Methods of contraception, including pharmacology of oral contraceptivesDysuria
Microanatomy of the lung including production of airway lining fluid and mucus layer, muco-ciliary clearance; role of Clara cells, goblet cells and mucus glandsChronic sputum production
Microanatomy of the lung parenchymaWorsening shortness of breath
Microanatomy of the vasculature including elastic and muscular arteriesAAA screening
Microbial causes of upper respiratory tract infectionsUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Microbiological characteristics of Helicobacter pylori; diagnosis and treatmentChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Microbiology and histology of tinea and scabiesRest home resident with itching and rash
Microbiology and pathogenesis of otitis mediaCongenital hearing loss
Microbiology and pathogenesis of bone and joint infections plus superantigen and post-streptococcal diseasesOsteomyelitis
Microbiology and pathogenesis of bone and joint infectionsFracture
Microbiology of septic arthritis and pharmacology of appropriate antimicrobialsKnee pain
Microbiology of Helicobacter pyloriUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Microbiology of Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniaeFever and headache
Microbiology of Streptococcus pyogenes and non suppurative complications of group A streptococcal infectionChild with generalised swelling
Microbiology of Streptococcus and streptococcal disease; both invasive and non suppurative sequelaeChild with sore joints
Microbiology of chronic lung infection; biofilm formationChronic sputum production
Microbiology of haemophilus influenza BCompromised airway
Microbiology of herpes simplex virusAgitated and combative patient
Microbiology of herpes virusesOsteomyelitis
Microbiology of herpes viruses, particularly Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV)Fever and adenopathy
Microbiology of hospital-acquired pneumonia, wound infectionPostoperative care
Microbiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)Fever and adenopathy
Microbiology of human papilloma virus (HPV)Perianal pathology
Microbiology of infection post cranial vault fractureHead trauma
Microbiology of infective exacerbations of eczema (bacteriologic, viral and parasitic) and impetigoItching child
Microbiology of meningitis and encephalitisAltered level of consciousness in a child
Microbiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs)Pre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Microbiology of peritonitis and surgical site infection; microorganisms associated with venous lines and urinary cathetersPostoperative complications
Microbiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)Dysuria
Microbiology of sore throat including Streptococcus pyogenes, respiratory viruses and herpes virus family (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV],cytomegalovirus [CMV])Sore throat management in the New Zealand context
Microbiology of streptococcus pharyngitisUpper airway disease
Microbiology of the hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B and C virusesChronic liver disease
Microbiology of the upper respiratory tract (in institutionalised patients)Pneumonia
Microbiology of upper respiratory illness including croup, epiglottitis/supraglottitis and tracheitisNeonatal stridor
Microbiology of upper respiratory tract infectionsEpistaxis
Microbiology of urinary tract infectionChild with disorder of elimination
Misuse of drugsAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Mode of action and metabolism of ethanolChronic liver disease
Molecular genetics of breast cancer and other hormone-driven malignanciesBreast lump and screening
Molecular structure, production and role of immunoglobulinsHypercalcaemia and back pain
Most common bacterial pathogens causing infection in neonates and maternal sepsisUnwell neonate
Most common congenital heart diseases (CHD) and their pathogenesisInfant or child with a murmur
Multifactorial pathogenesis of atopic eczema: genetic and environmental triggers, association with food allergyItching child
Multifactorial pathogenesis of hand dermatitisAdult eczema
Natural history of antenatal and postpartum mood disordersPostpartum care
Natural history of malignancies that are likely to metastasise to the brainSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Neuroanatomy of brain regions postulated to be associated with schizophreniaAcute psychosis
Neurological pain pathwaysMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Non-pharmacological management of severe painFlank pain and dysuria
Normal iron metabolism and response to iron deficiencyHeavy menstrual periods
Normal growth and development of newbornInfant with jaundice
Normal growth and developmentChild or adolescent with a headache, Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Normal growth and development through the lifespanIrritable infant
Normal and abnormal embryo and trophoblast developmentPregnancy diagnosis
Normal and abnormal haematopoiesisInfant or child with pallor
Normal and abnormal testicular descentAbdominal or inguinal lump
Normal cardiac electrophysiology including ion channel activity during cardiomyocyte depolarizationArrhythmias
Normal child development and skill acquisitionChild with disorder of elimination
Normal fluid balance and controls of kidney blood supply: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and prostaglandinsAcute kidney injury
Normal growth and developmental milestones of infantFracture
Normal human growth, development and speech through the life spanBefore school check
Normal karyotype and types of chromosome abnormalities (numerical, structural)Family with a genetic disorder
Normal micturition cycle, including autonomic and conscious controls of continenceUrinary incontinence in women
Normal nutrition and growth (iron, vitamin B12/folate, vitamin D)Infant or child with pallor
Normal physiology of breastfeeding6 week check
Normal ranges of respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure in newbornsInfant or child with a murmur
Normal sequence of puberty: hypothalamic pituitary axis, pubarche vs menarche vs thelarcheChild with abnormal puberty
Normal visual development and maturation in infantsInfant with strabismus
NutritionBefore school check
Nutrition (iron and vitamin D metabolism)6 week check
Nutrition and normal physiology of breastfeedingIrritable infant
Nutrition in pregnancy; folic acid and spinal deformityChild with abnormal gait
Nutrition, normal growth and development including fetal and maternal nutritionOsteomyelitis
Ocular anatomy relevant to possible site of the opacity: cornea, lens, vitreous, retinaInfant with an altered light reflex
Optics of hypermetropia and defocus, and spectacle correctionInfant with strabismus
Outcomes of the Human Genome Project; use of bioinformatics resources to assemble a range of information related to a genetic disorderFamily with a genetic disorder
Outline the histopathology of lymphomasNeck lump
Outline the microbiology of gastroenteritis and other causes of diarrhoea and vomitingInfectious disease outbreak
Outline the normal embryonic and fetal development from implantation to birth and trophoblastRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Outline the pharmacology of aminoglycosides and their ototoxic side effectsCongenital hearing loss
Outline the pharmacology of analgesics for chronic pain (including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)Painful hands in the cold
Outline the pharmacology of chemotherapeutic agentsPancytopenia
Outline the pharmacology of common antiemetics, and laxativesInfectious disease outbreak
Outline the pharmacology of commonly used cytotoxic drugsAdult with abdominal mass
Outline the pharmacology of inhalation anaesthetic agents, propofol, thiopental, muscle relaxants, local anaestheticPreoperative assessment and management
Outline the principles of gene therapy and other genetic-based approaches to disease management (recombinant pharmaceuticals, genetically engineered antibodies and vaccines, targeted inhibition of gene expression)Family with a genetic disorder
Outline the types of genetic abnormalities found in haematological malignanciesPancytopenia
Pain pathways and neuronal excitation/inhibition at a spinal levelPainful hands in the cold
Passive and active immunityNeedlestick injury
Pathogenesis and microbiology of aspiration pneumonia, parapneumonic effusion and empyemaPneumonia
Pathogenesis and microbiology/virology of conjunctivitisWatery eye in an infant
Pathogenesis of otitis media with effusionGlue ear
Pathogenesis of hypertension in pregnancyRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Pathogenesis of glaucomaGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Pathogenesis of congenital glaucomaWatery eye in an infant
Pathogenesis of congenital tear duct obstructionWatery eye in an infant
Pathogenesis of rheumatic feverFever and a new murmur
Pathogenesis of atopic eczema including impairment of the skin barrier function and its subsequent vulnerability to irritants and antigensAdult eczema
Pathogenesis of autoimmune bullous disease (bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus)Blisters
Pathogenesis of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (predominantly genetic basis with environmental aggravators)Rash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including the role of cytokinesSwollen and tender joints
Pathogenesis of spondyloarthritisReactive arthritis
Pathogenesis of acquired disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: acute appendicitis, intussusceptionAcute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Pathogenesis of acute post-streptococcal skin infectionItching child
Pathogenesis of aortic aneurysmsAAA screening
Pathogenesis of appendicitis and inflammatory bowel diseaseChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Pathogenesis of asthmaChild with respiratory distress
Pathogenesis of atherosclerosisStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Pathogenesis of autoimmunity (coeliac disease) and allergyFailure to thrive
Pathogenesis of central and branch retinal artery and vein occlusionsSudden painless loss of vision
Pathogenesis of congenital cataract, congenital corneal opacity, retinopathy of prematurityInfant with an altered light reflex
Pathogenesis of diplopiaDiplopia
Pathogenesis of food allergy/intoleranceChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Pathogenesis of gestational diabetes, types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitusDiabetes in pregnancy
Pathogenesis of glomerular injury seen in immune complex-mediated glomerular disease including SLESLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Pathogenesis of malaria and other arthropod borne infections including Dengue fever, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and food and water borne infections such as hepatitis A and typhoid feverFebrile returning traveller
Pathogenesis of periorbital infection; skin and nasopharyngeal pathogensChild with red swelling around one eye
Pathogenesis of retinoblastomaInfant with an altered light reflex
Pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), atelectasis, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolismPostoperative complications
Pathogenesis of the different types of cutaneous drug reactionsBlisters
Pathological basis of tumour markersElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Pathological processes affecting the kidney; pathology of diabetic renal diseaseChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Pathology and microbiology of pneumoniaPneumonia
Pathology and microbiology of tuberculosisHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Pathology in early pregnancy: ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage and molar pregnancyGynaecological abdominal pain
Pathology of tonsillitis and deep neck space infectionUpper airway disease
Pathology of pneumothoraxPenetrating chest trauma
Pathology of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)Acute kidney injury
Pathology of acute inflammationGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Pathology of alcoholic liver diseaseAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Pathology of benign and malignant breast lumpsBreast lump and screening
Pathology of biliary atresiaInfant with jaundice
Pathology of bronchiectasisChronic sputum production
Pathology of coeliac disease, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitisChronic bowel motility problems
Pathology of colorectal adenocarcinoma, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, haemorrhoids, anal fissuresRectal bleeding
Pathology of diabetic renal diseaseAcute kidney injury
Pathology of different valvular lesionsValvular heart disease
Pathology of inflammatory disease of the spine and jointsInflammatory low back pain
Pathology of intracerebral tumours, bleeds and traumatic brain injuriesEpilepsy / seizure
Pathology of kidney diseaseChild with generalised swelling
Pathology of lung cancer (and mesothelioma)Haemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Pathology of metabolic syndromeRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Pathology of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitusType 1 diabetes mellitus, Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Pathology of musculoskeletal tumoursMusculoskeletal lump
Pathology of rheumatic heart diseaseValvular heart disease
Pathology of the different types of dementia e.g. Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Lewy Body dementiaDelirium / dementia
Pathology of thyroid glandHypothyroidism
Pathology of types of tumours and other diseases that affect the pituitaryPanhypopituitarism
Pathology of upper respiratory tract malignancy; role of viral infectionUpper airway disease
Pathology of Wernicke/Korsakoff syndrome; role of thiamine deficiencyAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Pathophysiological mechanism of hypercalcaemiaHypercalcaemia and back pain
Pathophysiological theories of headaches and migraineHeadache
Pathophysiology and aetiology of deliriumDelirium / dementia
Pathophysiology and differentiation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease /asthmaChronic shortness of breath
Pathophysiology and genetics of disorders of bone development and structureFracture
Pathophysiology and microbiology of cerebral abcessesSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Pathophysiology and microbiology of inflammatory conditions of the male urogenital tractReactive arthritis
Pathophysiology and microbiology of inflammatory conditions of the male urogenital tract, including epididymo-orchitisAcute severe testicular pain
Pathophysiology and natural history of pre-eclampsiaLate pregnancy complications
Pathophysiology including histology of the normal process of cervical metaplasia, the progression of precursor cervical abnormalities to carcinoma, influence of smoking on this processAbnormal cervical smear result
Pathophysiology of stridor and wheezeNeonatal stridor
Pathophysiology of menorrhagiaHeavy menstrual periods
Pathophysiology of obesityRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Pathophysiology of delirium and dementiaAgitated and combative patient
Pathophysiology of osteoarthritisKnee pain
Pathophysiology of osteoarthritisShoulder pain
Pathophysiology of pneumothorax, pulmonary embolismSudden onset shortness of breath
Pathophysiology of asthma; mechanism and pathophysiology of exercise-induced asthmaSudden onset shortness of breath
Pathophysiology of septic shockFlank pain and dysuria
Pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS); recognise the relationship between metabolic syndrome and PCOSObesity
Pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and premature ovarian failure (POF)Infertility
Pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and premature ovarian failure (POF)Amenorrhea
Pathophysiology of hypertensionSudden onset severe headache, Obesity, Secondary hypertension
Pathophysiology of visual field defectsPanhypopituitarism
Pathophysiology of a tension pneumothoraxPenetrating chest trauma
Pathophysiology of achalasia and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)Dysphagia
Pathophysiology of alcoholic cirrhosis, dementia and neuropathyAlcohol
Pathophysiology of alcoholic dementia, especially frontal lobeAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Pathophysiology of allergyFood allergy in paediatrics
Pathophysiology of and histological changes in Barrett's oesophagusDysphagia
Pathophysiology of angle closure glaucomaAcute or chronic red eye
Pathophysiology of ascites and portal hypertensionChronic liver disease
Pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, plaque rupture and myocardial infarctionAcute chest pain
Pathophysiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD)Disruptive behaviour disorder
Pathophysiology of autoimmune diseaseAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Pathophysiology of bone and joint diseaseChild with sore joints
Pathophysiology of bowel obstructionBowel obstruction
Pathophysiology of bronchiectasis; aspiration, gastro-oesophageal reflux, recurrent infectionsChronic illness in paediatrics
Pathophysiology of cardioembolic disease and thrombocclusive peripheral vascular diseaseAcutely painful limb
Pathophysiology of cerebral palsyChronic illness in paediatrics
Pathophysiology of chronic painHeadache
Pathophysiology of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinomaAlcohol
Pathophysiology of common congenital anomaliesFetal health
Pathophysiology of compartment syndromeForearm / wrist injury
Pathophysiology of Cushing's responseAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Pathophysiology of disorders of spermatogenesisInfertility
Pathophysiology of drug withdrawal syndromes and how they pertain to analgesia/caffeine withdrawalHeadache
Pathophysiology of dyspnoea, airflow obstruction and hyperinflationChronic shortness of breath
Pathophysiology of fetal effects in diabetic pregnancyDiabetes in pregnancy
Pathophysiology of gallbladder disease, hiatus herniaChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Pathophysiology of Graves' diseaseHyperthyroidism
Pathophysiology of Hashimoto’s diseaseHypothyroidism
Pathophysiology of Huntington disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosisMajor depressive episode
Pathophysiology of hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndromeAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Pathophysiology of hyponatremiaDelirium / dementia
Pathophysiology of isoimmunisation, haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)Vaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Pathophysiology of isoimmunisation, haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) and role of anti-DGynaecological abdominal pain
Pathophysiology of joint inflammationOsteomyelitis
Pathophysiology of ketone production, dehydration and potassium loss in diabetic ketoacidosisAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Pathophysiology of metastatic diseaseHip fracture
Pathophysiology of movement disordersTremor and parkinsonism
Pathophysiology of neurodegenerative and neuro-inflammatory disorders including myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis and motor neuron diseaseNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseasesDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Pathophysiology of nutritional deficiencies and malabsorptionFailure to thrive
Pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) and narcolepsy; control of breathing during sleepDaytime sleepiness
Pathophysiology of ocular inflammation: conjunctivitis, keratitis, iritis, episcleritis, scleritisAcute or chronic red eye
Pathophysiology of osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's diseaseHip fracture
Pathophysiology of pain and pain pathwaysNon-specific back pain
Pathophysiology of perforated viscus, intra-abdominal sepsis, pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian cyst accident and a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysmAcute abdominal pain
Pathophysiology of portal hypertensionPatient with jaundice
Pathophysiology of pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; include consideration of retinal ischaemia, compounded by hypertension, renal impairment, poor diabetic control, smokingAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Pathophysiology of preterm labourLate pregnancy complications
Pathophysiology of radiculopathyNon-specific back pain
Pathophysiology of resistant hypertensionDaytime sleepiness
Pathophysiology of spinal cord injuries and neurogenic shockNeck injury
Pathophysiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis: hyperprolactinaemia, stress, anorexia, thyroid dysfunctionAmenorrhea, Infertility
Pathophysiology of the pilosebaceous gland in acne vulgarisPimples and rash on the face
Pathophysiology of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophreniaAcute psychosis
Pathophysiology of transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and strokeStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Pathophysiology of tubal ovarian disease: ovarian cysts, pelvic inflammatory diseaseGynaecological abdominal pain
Pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitusType 1 diabetes mellitus
Pathophysiology of vasovagal syncopeFalls and collapses
Pathophysiology/mechanisms of haemoptysisHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Pattern of burns caused by: electricity, acid, alkali and radiationBurns
Patterns of Mendelian inheritanceFetal health
Perinatal physiologyVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Peripheral blood abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Pharmacogenetic variability; recognise genetic susceptibility to drug reactionsBlisters
Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and side effects of antibiotics in neonates and children using beta-lactams and aminoglycosides as examplesUnwell neonate
Pharmacology of anti-inflammatory corticosteroidsHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain, Hip fracture
Pharmacology of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, spironolactone, digoxin, sympathomimeticsHeart failure
Pharmacology of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and hypnosedativesMajor depressive episode
Pharmacology of calcium channel blockers, beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs, digoxin, opioids, aspirin, paracetamol, warfarin and tricyclic antidepressantsAccidental overdose
Pharmacology of beta-2 adrenoceptor agonists, inhaled anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, ipratropium, leukotriene receptor antagonists, sodium cromoglycateSudden onset shortness of breath
Pharmacology of xanthine oxidase inhibitors (e.g. allopurinol)Gout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Pharmacology of gentamicin, chloramphenicol, penicillins with special properties, clavulanic acidHearing loss
Pharmacology of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) ointment, metronidazole, fluoroquinolonesPerianal pathology
Pharmacology of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), aspirin, clopidogrel, statins, low molecular weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, tissue-plasminogen activator, abciximabAcute chest pain
Pharmacology of haloperidol, olanzapine, rispiridone, benzodiazepinesAgitated and combative patient
Pharmacology of amiodarone, sotalol, lignocaine and membrane stabilisers, warfarinArrhythmias
Pharmacology of amiodarone, adrenalineOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Pharmacology of isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin, streptomycin and anti-cancer drugsHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Pharmacology of loperamide, erythromycin, lactulose, metoclopramideChronic bowel motility problems
Pharmacology of metformin and insulin in treatment of diabetes in pregnancyDiabetes in pregnancy
Pharmacology of metformin, antihypertensivesObesity
Pharmacology of metformin, sulphonylureas, GLP1 analogues, DPPIV inhibitors, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, intermediate and mixed insulin, statinsType 2 diabetes mellitus
Pharmacology of methotrexate (for medical management of ectopic pregnancy), misoprostol (for medical management of miscarriage), folate (peri-conceptual) and iodine (supplement in pregnancy)Gynaecological abdominal pain
Pharmacology of metoclopramide, domperidone, ondansetron and scopolamineBowel obstruction
Pharmacology of metronidazoleDiarrhoea
Pharmacology of nifedipine for tocolysis in threatened preterm labour; syntocinon to induce labour; antenatal steroids (betamethasone) in setting of suspected preterm birthLate pregnancy complications
Pharmacology of paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, metoclopramide, ondansetronHead trauma
Pharmacology of paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, codeine, tramadol, pethidine, benzodiazepines, midazolam and fentanylDislocated joint
Pharmacology of aspirin, clopidogrel, penicillins, extended spectrum penicillins, clavulanic acid, gyrase inhibitors, tetracyclines, metronidazole, macrolides, vancomycinChronic limb pain
Pharmacology of aspirin, clopidogrel, statins, fibrates, ion-exchange resins, thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitor, angiotensin 2 receptor antagonists, alpha-receptor blocker, unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, warfarin, fibrinolyticsAcutely painful limb
Pharmacology of testosterone, oestrogen, vasopressin, hydrocortisone and thyroxinePanhypopituitarism
Pharmacology of warfarin, heparin and low-molecular weight heparin, dabigatran, rivaroxabanDeep vein thrombosis
Pharmacology of benzylpenicillinChild with sore joints
Pharmacology of carbimazole, propylthiouracil and beta adrenoceptor blocking drugsHyperthyroidism
Pharmacology of acyclovir; interactions with contraceptivesDysuria
Pharmacology of clomiphene, gonadotrophins, metforminInfertility
Pharmacology of desmopressinChild with disorder of elimination, Diabetes insipidus
Pharmacology of adrenaline inhaled for acute respiratory distress (croup)Child with respiratory distress
Pharmacology of ethanol including toxicity, hypnosedatives (e.g. benzodiazepines, chlomethiazole), cannabis, opioids, amphetamines, cocaine, LSD, MDMA ('ecstasy')Alcohol and drug dependence disorders
Pharmacology of penicillin and cephalosporinsFever and headache
Pharmacology of penicillins, cephalosporins and vancomycinFever and a new murmur
Pharmacology of penicillins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, extended spectrum penicillins and aminoglycosidesPatient with jaundice
Pharmacology of antihistaminesFacial swelling and itchy rash
Pharmacology of adrenaline and antihistaminesFood allergy in paediatrics
Pharmacology of alpha adrenoceptor blocking drugs and hormonal treatments including 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors for benign prostatic hyperplasiaElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Pharmacology of analgesic agents including opioidsFlank pain and dysuria
Pharmacology of analgesic medications used for back pain: paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications and opioidsInflammatory low back pain
Pharmacology of anti-malarial drugsFebrile returning traveller
Pharmacology of anti-retroviral and anti-viral drugsNeedlestick injury
Pharmacology of anti-retroviral medicationFever and adenopathy
Pharmacology of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) therapy - vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitorsGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Pharmacology of antibacterials used in respiratory infection (benzylpenicillin and associated betalactams cephazolin, cefuroxime), macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin)Child with respiratory distress
Pharmacology of antibiotic activity: pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamicsFebrile infant
Pharmacology of anticholinergic medications and local oestrogensUrinary incontinence in women
Pharmacology of anticonvulsants: benzodiazepines/midazolam, lorazepam for status epilepticus, phenytoin, phenobarbitone; route of medication delivery in emergency/status epilepticus (e.g: intranasal, buccal and rectal)Altered level of consciousness in a child
Pharmacology of antiemeticsDizziness and vertigo
Pharmacology of antihistamines and adrenaline; cross-reactivity of medicationsCompromised airway
Pharmacology of antihypertensives, antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, lipid lowering agents, thrombolytic agentsStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Pharmacology of antispasmodics including botulinum toxin, anticonvulsants (valproate, phenytoin, carbamazepine, benzodiazepines, lamotrigine)Chronic illness in paediatrics
Pharmacology of asthma medicines including salbutamol, salmeterol, ipratropium, cromoglicate, montelukast, and inhaled steroids (beclamethasone, budesonide, fluticasone)Child with respiratory distress
Pharmacology of benzodiazepines, quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone and flumazenilDelirium / dementia
Pharmacology of benzodiazepines, opioids, paracetamol, metoclopramide, ondansetron, flumazenil, naloxone, low molecular weight heparin, insulin, aspirin, clopidogrelPreoperative assessment and management
Pharmacology of benzoyl peroxide, topical and systemic antibiotics, topical and systemic retinoids, antiandrogens, tetracycline antibioticsPimples and rash on the face
Pharmacology of beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs, alpha adrenoceptor blocking drugs, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, spironolactone, thiazide diureticsSecondary hypertension
Pharmacology of beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs, nitrates, statins, calcium channel blockersStable angina
Pharmacology of beta-lactam antimicrobials, metronidazole, aminoglycosides, paracetamol and opioidsPostoperative complications
Pharmacology of betalactam antibiotics; (flucloxacillin, amoxicillin-clavulinate, flucloxacillin, cephazolin)Child with red swelling around one eye
Pharmacology of betalactams antibioticsOsteomyelitis
Pharmacology of chemotherapy for lymphoproliferative disorders (e.g. fludarabine, cyclophosphamide)Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Pharmacology of commonly used herbal remedies, interactions with prescribed medicationsDizziness and vertigo
Pharmacology of ethinyl estradiol, progestogens (norethisterone, levonorgestrol,medroxyprogesterone), emergency contraceptive pillContraception
Pharmacology of glucocorticoids (e.g. prednisone), and inhaled therapy including beta-2 adrenoceptor agonists (e.g. salbutamol, eformoterol, salmeterol), inhaled anti-cholinergics (e.g. tiotropium, ipratropium) and inhaled corticosteroids (beclomethasone, budesonide, fluticasone)Chronic shortness of breath
Pharmacology of glucocorticoids, penicillins, penicillins with special properties, clavulanic acid, aminoglycosides, nystatinUpper airway disease
Pharmacology of hypnosedatives, flumazenil and antidepressant medicationsAnxiety disorder
Pharmacology of local anaesthetics, paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioidsSuperficial injuries
Pharmacology of low molecular weight heparin, clopidogrel, aspirinPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Pharmacology of macrolides, anti-microbial agents (particularly anti-pseudomonal antibiotics); mechanisms of drug action and potential drug interactionsChronic sputum production
Pharmacology of medical treatments for heavy menstrual bleeding: combined oral contraceptive pill, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranexamic acid, Depo Provera, Mirena intrauterine system (IUS)Heavy menstrual periods
Pharmacology of medications that commonly cause hyponatraemia and have an awareness of their effect on sodium and water homeostasisHyponatraemia
Pharmacology of medications used in management of pain and migraine; paracetamolChild or adolescent with a headache
Pharmacology of medications used to treat Parkinson's diseaseTremor and parkinsonism
Pharmacology of neuromuscular blockersNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Pharmacology of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antacids, proton pump inhibitors, H2 antagonists, metoclopramide, oral bisphosphonatesChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Pharmacology of oestrogen replacement therapyBreast lump and screening
Pharmacology of opioids, metoclopramide, ondansetron, domperidone and scopolaminePenetrating chest trauma
Pharmacology of opioids, paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugsPostoperative care
Pharmacology of opioids, benzodiazepines, alcohol, flumazenil, fibrinolytics, inhalation anaesthetic agents, thiopental, muscle relaxants, carbamazepine, sodium valproate, phenytoin, gabapentin, lamotrigine, ethosuximide and phenobarbitalUnexplained loss of consciousness
Pharmacology of pain relief and prescribing in children; paracetamolAcute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Pharmacology of pain relief, specific to children, including non-medication techniquesFracture
Pharmacology of pencillin V, amoxicillin and benzyl and benzathine penicillin Pharmacology of erythromycinSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Pharmacology of penicillin, flucloxacillin, macrolides, clindamycin, antifungal agents; therapeutic options to treat MRSASkin and soft tissue infection
Pharmacology of penicillins, extended spectrum penicillins (e.g. amoxicillin), clavulanic acid (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid), tetracyclines (e.g. doxycycline), macrolides (e.g. erythromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin)Pneumonia
Pharmacology of phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, haloperidol, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapineAcute psychosis
Pharmacology of progestogens, combined oral contraceptive pill, metformin, anti-androgensAmenorrhea
Pharmacology of short acting and long acting insulin, glucagonType 1 diabetes mellitus
Pharmacology of synthetic hormones: dexamethasone, prednisone, fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone. Relative potencies of these drugsAdrenal crisis
Pharmacology of the systemic treatments for scabies and tinea; systemic antifungals (terbinafine, itraconazole); systemic antiscabetics (ivermectin)Rest home resident with itching and rash
Pharmacology of the topical treatments for scabies and tinea; topical antifungal; azoles (miconazole etc); topical antiscabetics (permethrin, malathion)Rest home resident with itching and rash
Pharmacology of thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, alpha adrenoceptor blocking drugs, centrally acting antihypertensives, calcium channel blockers, opioids, metoclopramide, domperidone, ondansetron, scopolamineSudden onset severe headache
Pharmacology of thyroxine, iodine and carbimazoleHypothyroidism
Pharmacology of topical anti-inflammatory corticosteroidsItching child
Pharmacology of topical and systemic anti-inflammatory corticosteroidsAdult eczema
Pharmacology of topical and systemic drugs that affect the pupilPupil abnormality
Pharmacology of topical steroids, calcipotriol (vitamin D analogue) and coal tar; systemic methotrexate, ciclosporin, acitretin, biologics (tumour necrosis factor-alpha antagonists - adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab; interleukin 12/23 inhibitor - ustekinemab)Rash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Pharmacology of trimethoprim, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolone antibioticsFlank pain and dysuria
Pharmacology of tryptans, antidepressants, beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs, anticonvulsants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugsHeadache
Pharmacology of vitamin K, glucocorticoids, cocaine, aspirin, clopidogrel, warfarin, abciximabEpistaxis
Physiological changes associated with ageingMajor depressive episode
Physiological changes following surgery, including consequences of fastingPostoperative complications
Physiological changes in cardiac function associated with ageingAcute chest pain
Physiological changes of the cardiovascular and haematological systems at different stages of pregnancyVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Physiological mechanisms for compensating acute haemorrhageGynaecological abdominal pain
Physiological response to raised intracranial pressureUnexplained loss of consciousness
Physiological responses to surgery and anaestheticPreoperative assessment and management
Physiology and control of insulin releaseAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Physiology and different waveforms of jugular venous pressure waveHeart failure
Physiology and distribution of adipose tissueObesity
Physiology and endocrinology of early pregnancyPregnancy diagnosis
Physiology and endocrinology of pregnancy including altered glucose tolerance and insulin resistanceDiabetes in pregnancy
Physiology and pathology of coagulationInfant or child with easy bruising
Physiology and pathophysiology of neonatal jaundice and red cell degradation (physiological and pathological jaundice)Infant with jaundice
Physiology and regulation of the central nervous system (CNS) environment; function of the reticular activating systemUnexplained loss of consciousness
Physiology behind patterns of pain: visceral vs parietal painAcute abdominal pain
Physiology of acute and chronic inflammationNon-specific back pain
Physiology of acid production in the stomach, function of the lower oesophageal sphincter and gallbladderChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Physiology of acute airway obstruction; intra- vs extra-thoracic, focal vs diffuse airflow obstructionCompromised airway, Upper airway disease, Sudden onset shortness of breath
Physiology of ageingDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Physiology of aqueous humour production and drainageAcute or chronic red eye, Acute trauma to the eye
Physiology of blood pressure control, including adaptation to standingFalls and collapses
Physiology of body fluid compartmentsPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Physiology of body fluids, acid base and nutritionInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Physiology of bone turnover and articular cartilageKnee pain
Physiology of breathing, speech, swallowingUpper airway disease
Physiology of breathing: mechanics, gas exchange, control, work of breathingWorsening shortness of breath
Physiology of cerebral perfusion and Cushing's responseHead trauma
Physiology of cerebrospinal fluid production and neuronal conductionSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Physiology of conception and implantationContraception
Physiology of conception, factors, conditions and hormones required for successful conceptionInfertility
Physiology of continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) and non-invasive ventilationDaytime sleepiness
Physiology of factors that may lead to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)Hyponatraemia
Physiology of faecal continencePerianal pathology
Physiology of feverFebrile returning traveller
Physiology of fluid balance and blood gasFebrile infant
Physiology of fluid dynamics and vascular mechanicsAAA screening
Physiology of follicle maturation, ovulation and atresiaInfertility
Physiology of fracture healingHand injury
Physiology of gas exchange and interpretation of arterial blood gas resultsChronic shortness of breath
Physiology of growthFailure to thrive
Physiology of hearingHearing loss
Physiology of hearing and balanceDizziness and vertigo
Physiology of heart, lungs, body fluid compartments, nerve and pain conductionPostoperative care
Physiology of intracranial pressure controlAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Physiology of mast cellsFacial swelling and itchy rash
Physiology of movement and neural controlTremor and parkinsonism
Physiology of muscle contractionShoulder pain
Physiology of neural motor/sensory pathways (including visual, auditory) and higher mental functionStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Physiology of neuromuscular controlNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Physiology of non-invasive ventilation (NIV)Chronic shortness of breath
Physiology of normal digestion and absorptionChronic bowel motility problems
Physiology of normal puberty and sexual maturityAmenorrhea
Physiology of nutrition, digestion, fluid balance, haemostasisRectal bleeding
Physiology of olfaction and haemostasisEpistaxis
Physiology of pain pathwaysShoulder pain
Physiology of pregnancy, hormonal and other physiological changes during the different stages of normal pregnancyRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Physiology of puerperium and lactationPostpartum care
Physiology of renal diseaseChild with disorder of elimination
Physiology of renal perfusion, ultrafiltration and the nephronAcute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Physiology of septic shock including disseminated intravascular coagulationFever and headache
Physiology of spermatogenesisInfertility
Physiology of spinal and central mechanisms of sensory perceptionNon-specific back pain
Physiology of swallowingDysphagia
Physiology of the accommodative reflex (triad)Pupil abnormality
Physiology of the cardiac cycle and murmur generationFever and a new murmur
Physiology of the cardiac cycle, how heart sounds are generated and hydrodynamicsValvular heart disease
Physiology of the coagulation cascade and reticulocyte cycleAlcohol
Physiology of the cornea, corneal clarity and corneal repairAcute trauma to the eye
Physiology of the female and male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its effects on target organs including the normal menstrual cycle, ovulation and fertile periodInfertility
Physiology of the heart: electrical conduction, synchronous and asynchronous cardioversionOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axisAdrenal crisis
Physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-end organ axis; science of negative feedback loopsPanhypopituitarism
Physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, including the menstrual cycleObesity
Physiology of the menopause and the peri-menopausal period; role of anovulationHeavy menstrual periods
Physiology of the middle ear including function of the pharyngotympanic tubeGlue ear
Physiology of the normal menstrual cycleContraception, Heavy menstrual periods
Physiology of the normal menstrual cycle and early pregnancyGynaecological abdominal pain
Physiology of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemHeart failure
Physiology of the thyroid gland and pathology of thyroid nodulesNeck lump
Physiology of uterine contractility and fetal heart rate patternsLabour
Physiology of vision and visual pathway, ocular motilityChild with red swelling around one eye
Physiology of vision: alignment and function of photoreceptorsGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Physiology of vomitingDizziness and vertigo
Physiology of water and sodium homeostasisHyponatraemia
Portal hypertension in liver diseaseUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Postnatal adaptation of babies; role of surfactantLate pregnancy complications
Prescribing during lactation; drug interactions in breast feedingPostpartum care
Prescribing for childrenOverdose in a child or adolescent
Principles of adverse drug reactionsFacial swelling and itchy rash
Principles of cardiac re-modellingHeart failure
Principles of dialysis and haemofiltrationAcute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Principles of drug distribution, metabolism and excretion; concentration-time relationships, individual variability in response to drugs; pharmacogenetic variability; monitoring drug therapy, drug interactions, rational approach to prescribingArrhythmias
Principles of exogenous steroid use leading to endogenous adrenal suppressionAdrenal crisis
Principles of immunisation and vaccine preventable diseaseFever and headache
Principles of oncogenesis (lymphoma, Wilms tumour, neuroblastoma)Abdominal or inguinal lump
Principles of pharmacokinetic variability, monitoring drug therapy and drug interactionsGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; principles of drug absorption, transportation, metabolism and excretionAccidental overdose
Principles of referred painStable angina
Principles of repeated drug dosing, pharmacokinetic variability in the response to drugs, monitoring drug concentrations, rational prescribing (calculation of drug dosage)Postoperative complications
Principles of Starling's curve and forcesHeart failure
Process of wound healingSuperficial injuries
Processes and routes by which malignancies metastasiseAdult with abdominal mass
Production and excretion of bilirubinPatient with jaundice, Chronic liver disease
Production and function of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)Heart failure
Progression of cancer: pre-cancerous to cancer to metastatic diseaseBowel obstruction
Progression of malignancy from pre-cancerous to cancerous to metastatic diseaseChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Psychiatric and psychological sequelae of seizure-activity and use of anticonvulsants; cognitive dysfunction, mood disturbance, personality changes, anxiety disorder, psychosisEpilepsy / seizure
Psychology of temperament and personalityPersonality disorder
Psychosocial development during infancy and childhoodFailure to thrive
Pulmonary and non-pulmonary manifestations of cystic fibrosisChronic sputum production
Pulmonary mechanics, gas exchangePneumonia
Pulmonary mechanics, gas exchange, control of breathingSudden onset shortness of breath
Radiologic patterns of diffuse lung diseaseWorsening shortness of breath
Recognise the different types of melanomaSkin tumours
Regulation of plasma potassium, sodium and implications of disturbanceAdrenal crisis
Relation of body weight to healthy developmentChildhood obesity
Relation of refractive error to ocular anatomy and relevance to angle closureAcute or chronic red eye
Renal mechanism for concentrating urineDiabetes insipidus
Risk factors for abnormal implantation of the placentaVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Risk factors for developing varicose veinsChronic limb pain
Risk factors for urinary incontinenceUrinary incontinence in women
Risk factors for vertically acquired bacterial sepsisUnwell neonate
Risk factors in the aetiology of gynaecological malignancies (including genetic)Postmenopausal bleeding
Risk of serious sepsis across differing paediatric age groupsUnwell neonate
Risks of over-investigationMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Role of iron, vitamin B12 and folate in erythropoiesisChronic bowel motility problems
Role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the aetiology of cervical and vulvar pathologyAbnormal cervical smear result
Role of adrenal hormones and thyroid function and how derangement in these systems can affect water and sodium homeostasisHyponatraemia
Role of cytokines in inflammationSudden loss of vision and headache
Role of diabetes in the development of atherosclerosisType 1 diabetes mellitus
Role of drug intoxication and withdrawal in altered mental statesAgitated and combative patient
Role of environmental factors in aetiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)SLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Role of hepcidin in iron regulation and the anaemia of chronic diseaseAnaemia
Role of JAK2 and BCR-ABL mutations in the development of myeloproliferative neoplasmsPolycythaemia
Role of nutrition in normal growth and developmentChild with abnormal puberty
Role of oestrogen in the aetiology of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinomaHeavy menstrual periods
Role of psychosocial interventions in managing such disorders effectivelyMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Role of teratogens in congenital abnormalitiesInfant or child with a murmur
Role of the kidney in elimination of drugs and the effect of renal dysfunction on this; pharmacokinetic variabilityChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Routes of metastatic spread of gynaecological malignanciesPostmenopausal bleeding
Routes of transmitting an infectious diseaseNeedlestick injury
Science of blood transfusionUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Science of electrical conduction and defibrillation; direct and alternating currentOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Science of enteroviruses including epidemiology and syndromesFever and headache
Science of flow cytometryLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Science of negative feedback loopsHypothyroidism
Science of neonatal body coolingLabour
Science of osmosis and diffusionPreoperative assessment and management
Science of protein electrophoresis and differentiating polyclonal from monoclonal increases in immunoglobulinsHypercalcaemia and back pain
Science of sound waves, frequency, volume, generation and conductionHearing loss
Seizure patterns and localisation (simple, complex, partial, generalisation, absence, daytime/nocturnal)Epilepsy / seizure
Signs of and response to infection in a childOsteomyelitis
Skin and soft tissue infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)) and Streptococcus pyogenesSkin and soft tissue infection
Stages of sleep and secondary insomniasAnxiety disorder
Stages of sleep and sleep disturbancesMajor depressive episode
Structure and function of pain perceptionPainful hands in the cold
Structure and function of the growing skeletonFracture
Structure and function of the kidney, including its extra-renal functions (e.g. role in red cell formation)Chronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Structure and function of the pilosebaceous glandPimples and rash on the face
Structure and function of the renal tractAcute kidney injury
Structure and function of the urinary tractGross haematuria
Structure of cardiac myocytesArrhythmias
Structure of haemoglobinAnaemia
Structure, development and function of the placentaLate pregnancy complications
Structure, function and common pathologies of blood vessels including regulation of blood pressureHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Structure, function and common pathologies of connective tissuePainful hands in the cold
Structure, function and common pathologies of joints and ligaments including the ankle and footReactive arthritis
Structure, function and common pathologies of joints and ligaments including the spineInflammatory low back pain
Structure, function and common pathologies of male urethraReactive arthritis
Structure, function and common pathologies of small joints of the hands and feetSwollen and tender joints
Structure, function and common pathologies of synoviumSwollen and tender joints
Structure, function and common pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract in infants and childrenChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents, Acute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Structure, function and common pathologies of the knee, including crystal arthropathy, haemarthrosis and septic arthritisGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Structure, function and common pathologies of the scrotal contents and male urethraAcute severe testicular pain
Structures of the irido-corneal angle (the anterior chamber angle)Pupil abnormality
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve supply of the pupilPupil abnormality
T-cell mediated immunity and inflammationSudden loss of vision and headache
Terminology for describing an injury: e.g. laceration, contusionSuperficial injuries
The aetiology and pathogenesis of cystitis and pyelonephritisFlank pain and dysuria
The aetiology of Parkinson's disease and Parkinon's disease-like symptomsTremor and parkinsonism
The common aetiologies of diarrhoea across the lifespanDiarrhoea
The evolution of cancer: pre-cancerous to cancer to metastatic diseaseElevation of prostate-specific antigen
The process and staging of ovarian ageingMenopause
The process of drug development, licensing and Pharmaceutical Management Agency (PHARMAC) fundingGenetic testing information
The role of cytokines in acute and chronic inflammationInflammatory low back pain
The role of exogenous oestrogens on cardiovascular and gynaecological oncology risk factorsContraception
The role of HPV test in screening for cervical pathologyAbnormal cervical smear result
The role of lifestyles, such as exercise and diet, on disease developmentStable angina
The spectrum of healthcare-associated infectionsPostoperative complications
Theories underlying cognitive behavioural therapy (learning theories, behaviourism, cognitive theories)Anxiety disorder
Theory and principles of behaviour management, including applied behavioural analysis, setting up a behaviour management programme, parent management training, social skills trainingDisruptive behaviour disorder
Theory around antenatal and infant allergen presentationFood allergy in paediatrics
Thermoregulation and nutrition in preterm and low birth weight babiesLate pregnancy complications
Thyroid hormone synthesisHyperthyroidism
Toxicity of paracetamol, aspirin, lithium, organophosphate, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, zopiclone, carbon monoxide and other common substances used in overdoseSelf-harm
Toxicology of alcohol and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawalEpilepsy / seizure
Toxicology of alcohol; tolerance, dependence and withdrawal mechanismsAlcohol
Toxicology of local anaesthetic, opioidsPreoperative assessment and management
Transition at birth from fetal to postnatal breathingLabour
Transition at birth from fetal to postnatal circulationInfant or child with a murmur
Transmission and pathophysiology of hepatitis B and C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)Needlestick injury
Triplet repeat expansion and implications for following generationsFamily with a genetic disorder
Type I hypersensitivity, immunoglobulin E (IgE) , mast cells, eosinophilsSudden onset shortness of breath
Types of gallstonesPatient with jaundice
Types of stones formed and the relationship between the stone composition and other diseasesFlank pain and dysuria
Understand age appropriate developmental milestones for hearing and speech and languageCongenital hearing loss
Understand sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive valueAAA screening
Understand the difference between conductive and sensorineural hearing lossCongenital hearing loss
Understand the differences between screening and diagnostic tests for cervical pathologyAbnormal cervical smear result
Understand the effect of acids and alkalis on ocular tissue (lids, conjunctiva, cornea and anterior chamber)Acute trauma to the eye
Understand the importance of using evidence-based medicineAAA screening
Understand the mechanism of action of phototherapy in treating inflammatory skin disordersRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Understand the methods of testing for hearing loss at different ages (including the tests used for neonatal hearing screening)Congenital hearing loss
Understand the principles of cost-effectivenessAAA screening
Understand the progression of cancer; pre-cancerous to cancer to metastatic diseaseGross haematuria
Understand the steroidogenesis pathway; pathophysiology of androgen excess; pathophysiology of steroid excessObesity
Understanding of ethnicity and how it differs from related conceptsClinical audit
Understanding of social and historical determinants of health and inequityTeaching
Use and mechanism of action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugsReactive arthritis
Use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, and hypnosedativesBipolar affective disorder
Vascular supply to the eye (specifically optic nerve and retina in detail)Sudden loss of vision and headache
Vascular supply to the head and neck (especially superficial temporal artery)Sudden loss of vision and headache
Vaughan-Williams classification of anti-arrhythmic drugsArrhythmias
Vertical transmission of infections and their preventionFetal health
What determines body weight in childhoodChildhood obesity
Work and control of breathingChronic shortness of breath
'Red flags' for rheumatic fever/serious sepsis; rash, fever, systemic signsChild with sore joints
Warfarin counsellingDeep vein thrombosis
Examination of the upper airway, ears and throatUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Examine comfortably using an otoscope and complete full ear, nose and throat examinationGlue ear
Examine hearing with the Rinne and Weber testsGlue ear
Examine the nose and upper airwayEpistaxis
Driving standards for vision, return to work capabilities, occupational standards for visionAcute or chronic red eye
Driving standards for vision; occupational standards for vision (monocular and binocular)/return to work capabilitiesAcute trauma to the eye
Newborn examination; recognition of the seriously unwell infantUnwell neonate
Physical examination of the newbornInfant with jaundice
Assessment of growth and normal development of childChild with respiratory distress
HEADSS assessment of the adolescentChild with abnormal puberty
Physical examination including height and weight, blood pressure, visual acuity, fields and fundoscopyChild or adolescent with a headache
Basic resuscitation infant/neonateUnwell neonate
Examination of the abdomen (including perianal/perineal areas) and eliciting important signs and symptoms (blood in stools, abdominal masses, weight loss, extraintestinal signs such as rashes and joint pains)Chronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
X-ray and MRI in assessing patients with inflammatory arthritisSwollen and tender joints
Examine the patient's skin, evaluate general status and look for signs of underlying infection or diseaseFacial swelling and itchy rash
Skin examination to determine the extent and severity of psoriasisRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Examination of a rash; include other structures if relevant (e.g. joint if rash lies over it)Skin and soft tissue infection
Examination of a patient with blisters noting site, size, flaccidity, distribution of blisters, signs of mucous membrane and systemic involvementBlisters
Examine the skin and assess the extent and degree of involvement of the eczema; examine for clinical evidence of scabies, eczema herpeticum and molluscum contagiosum; establish if there is secondary bacterial infection and know features of impetigo and furunculosisItching child
Elicit a history from a patient with a rashSkin and soft tissue infection
Establish the history from nursing staff and family/whānau and take a careful drug historyRest home resident with itching and rash
History from a patient with a skin lesionSkin tumours
Take a history that allows determination of risk factors for eczema, associated conditions, assessment of severity, current treatment including quantity and duration; assess possible 'steroid phobia'Itching child
Management of mild to moderate eczema including use of emollients; appropriate use of topical steroid ladder; give family a clear explanation of how to apply topical preparations and appropriate quantities, and demonstrate where necessaryItching child
Manage, report and avoid adverse drug reactions; use of medic alert bracelet, automated computer alerts; notification to Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring (CARM)Blisters
Take a history focusing on presence or absence of other symptoms of anaphylaxis, possible triggers for urticaria and previous episodes of urticaria or angioedemaFacial swelling and itchy rash
Blood tests in diagnosing inflammatory arthritisSwollen and tender joints
Examination of an acutely tender jointGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
History from a patient with multisystem chronic inflammatory diseaseSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
History of acute onset joint pain and potential contributory factors including gout, dehydration, weight loss and diuretic use; take a medication historyGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
History relevant to a patient with a connective tissue disorderSwollen and tender joints
Musculoskeletal examination including an examination of an acute jointSwollen and tender joints
Basic resuscitation if depressed level of consciousnessOverdose in a child or adolescent
Management of overdose: generally supportive measures, decontamination and specific antidotesSelf-harm
Management of pneumonia: pharmacological and non-pharmacologicalPneumonia
Management of acute asthma: asthma medications, using a spacer, long-term prevention, lifestyle changes, asthma management planChild with respiratory distress
Management of hypoglycaemic episode including nonpharmacologic (e.g. eating) and pharmacologic (glucagon injection) methodsType 1 diabetes mellitus
Differential diagnosis of acute chest painAcute chest pain
Indications for CT and MRISpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Indications for CT head, toxicology screen, Holter monitor, infection screenFalls and collapses
Assess fluid balance, particularly in relation to hypoalbuminaemiaChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Indications for CT, MRI, MR angiography, cervical spine X-rayHead trauma
Radiologic features of pneumoniaChild with respiratory distress
Examine the superficial lymph nodes and abdomen (particularly liver and spleen); document lymph node status, liver and spleen size for future comparisonLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Management of airway of a breathing and apnoeic patient, massive blood transfusion, anaphylaxis, aspiration pneumonia, perioperative thromboembolic risk, perioperative diabetes mellitus, perioperative fluid and electrolyte balance, perioperative nutritionPreoperative assessment and management
Interpret monitoring of vital signs, full blood count, coagulation screen, renal function tests, chest X-rayPreoperative assessment and management
Screening for Down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalitiesPregnancy diagnosis
Examine and describe a lesion with use of appropriate dermatological terminologySkin tumours
History from a patient with an abnormal chest X-ray and haemoptysis; assess risk factors for tuberculosis and lung cancer including occupational historyHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Indications for endoscopy, abdominal X-ray (including plain film contrast studies), CT abdomen, ultrasound abdomenChronic bowel motility problems
'Triple assessment' principle and how it is used; examination, imaging and biopsyBreast lump and screening
Smoking cessation and nicotine replacement during hospitalisationDysphagia
Ophthalmoscopy to identify any media opacities (e.g. cataract) and assess fundusGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Access the New Zealand National Poisons Centre website for adviceOverdose in a child or adolescent
Acknowledge concerns of patient and family members. Defer discussions to appropriate specialists such as genetic counsellors when appropriateFamily with a genetic disorder
Acknowledge the limits of the current state of medical knowledge and testing as there are disorders where there are no definitive tests and which may resemble medically unexplained symptoms; the medical and related fields are constantly evolvingMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Acknowledge the pain and fear of needlesSuperficial injuries
Acute management of stroke and TIA; indication for urgent imaging of the brain; consideration of stroke thrombolysis and primary radiological interventionStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Additional investigations that may be required: slit lamp examination (portable), ultrasound if the media is opaque and Retcam (fundus camera), neuroimaging for retinoblastoma, general paediatric assessment (for systemic causes), genetic/other laboratory investigationsInfant with an altered light reflex
Administer a screening questionnaire to parentsBefore school check
Advance care planning discussionGenetic testing information
Advice around allergen avoidance and understanding written management plan detailing the signs, symptoms and management of allergic reactionsFood allergy in paediatrics
Advice regarding pregnancy and contraception in women with SLESLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Advise about antigen/irritant avoidance, appropriate topical or systemic therapy (if needed). Give specific written and verbal instructions about management plan (topical steroid use including potency and quantities, frequency and duration)Adult eczema
Advising about genetic testing for breast cancerGenetic testing information
Alternative therapy for management of hot flushes (lifestyle, paced breathing, cool environment, exercise, prescription and non-prescription medications)Menopause
Anaesthetic and common post-surgical complicationsPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Anaesthetic considerations in older patient with COPDHip fracture
Antenatal screening specific to diabetes; risks of fetal anomalies and fetal growth abnormalitiesDiabetes in pregnancy
Antibiotic selection: intravenous/oral and consideration of antimicrobial resistanceSkin and soft tissue infection
Antibiotic therapy for genitourinary infectionReactive arthritis
Antimicrobial stewardship: appropriate selection of antimicrobial agentsFlank pain and dysuria
Antimicrobial stewardship: rational empirical antibiotic choices including perioperative antibiotic prophylaxisPostoperative complications
Antimicrobial stewardship: role of antibiotics in the management of diarrhoea and the role of antibiotics in causing diarrhoeaDiarrhoea
Antimicrobial stewardship; non pharmacological management of boilsSkin and soft tissue infection
Appearances of bone tumours on plain X-rayMusculoskeletal lump
Apply criteria for assessing withdrawal from alcohol e.g. CIWA-Ar (Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessement for Alcohol)Alcohol and drug dependence disorders, Chronic liver disease
Apply Ottawa ankle rules (indications for X-rays)Reactive arthritis
Approach to discussing overweight/obesity with child and familyOsteomyelitis
Appropriate antenatal management of pre-eclampsia; use of magnesium sulphate to prevent and treat eclampsiaLate pregnancy complications
Appropriate management of medically unexplained somatic symptomsChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Appropriate examination including asking for removal of makeup; conduct an appropriately sensitive examination including the face, scalp, neck and trunk; consider use of a chaperonePimples and rash on the face
Appropriate administration of anti-DVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Appropriate and safe prescribing of contraception with reference to WHO/UK Medical Eligibility Criteria risk stratification for contraceptive choicesContraception
Appropriate antenatal management of preterm birth; role of tocolytics, steroids and magnesium sulphate, importance of transfer to hospital with appropriate level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)Late pregnancy complications
Appropriate communication for a sensitive topicDysuria
Appropriate communication for discussing lifestyle including alcohol and weight lossChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Appropriate communication with a patient who feels embarrassed; appropriate communication with a teenagerPimples and rash on the face
Appropriate communication with patient regarding their change in libidoPanhypopituitarism
Appropriate engagement and consultation with family/whānau, as well as the patientAltered level of consciousness in a child
Appropriate engagement and consultation with patient and family/whānauInfant or child with easy bruising
Appropriate examination for contraceptive prescribingContraception
Appropriate follow-up of benign ovarian cystsGynaecological abdominal pain
Appropriate follow-up of women using hormone therapyMenopause
Appropriate initial investigations: antenatal screen, Day 2-4 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteal phase progesterone, semen analysisInfertility
Appropriate initial investigations: pregnancy test, gonadotrophins, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), swabs, smearAmenorrhea
Appropriate investigations and their indications in short stature, pubertal delay and precocious pubertyChild with abnormal puberty
Appropriate management plan including behavioural and lifestyle changesMenopause
Appropriate prescribing of anti-DGynaecological abdominal pain
Appropriate referral to fertility specialistInfertility
Appropriate referral to otorhinolaryngology (ORL), paediatricsChild with red swelling around one eye
Appropriate response to discriminatory or unprofessional discourse in clinical situationsTeaching
Appropriate use of speculum and/or vaginal examination pending review of ultrasound for placental localisationVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Arrange appropriate preoperative investigationsPreoperative assessment and management
Ascertain dietary triggers and be aware of dietary interventions in management of chronic goutGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Assess pupil size and pupil responsesAcute or chronic red eye
Assess fluid statusHeart failure
Assess visual fields to confrontationGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Assess a neonate's need for admission to neonatal unit (feeding difficulties/serious cardiac anomaly)Fetal health
Assess cardiovascular risk; interpret HbA1c, cholesterol, chest X-rayStable angina
Assess co-morbidities e.g. upper respiratory tract diseaseChronic sputum production
Assess for anxiety and depressive symptomsChild or adolescent with a headache
Assess for associated abnormalities (dysmorphic features) and identification of common genetic syndromes associated with congenital heart diseaseInfant or child with a murmur
Assess for other medically unexplained somatic symptomsChild or adolescent with a headache
Assess macular function (e.g. use of Amsler grid)Gradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Assess maternal and baby safety (suicidal intent, harming herself and/or the baby)Postpartum care
Assess nutritional stateDysphagia
Assess the impact of this chronic disease on the patient and family/whānau; establish a short term and then a realistic longer term goals of management with the patient and the family/whānauItching child
Assess the level of daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score)Daytime sleepiness
Assessing bone health and indications for and interpretation of bone mineral density testMenopause
Assessing sexual health and refer for counselling if neededMenopause
Assessment of anxiety/depressive symptomsChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Assessment of adolescent in case of intentional overdose (HEADSS assessment and full psychiatric evaluation)Overdose in a child or adolescent
Assessment of child with poor growth including plotting growth parameters (height, weight and head circumference)Failure to thrive
Assessment of depression, anxiety and alcohol/other drug useNon-specific back pain
Assessment of growth and normal development of newborn, plotting growth charts and correcting for prematurity6 week check
Assessment of growth, diet, fluid intake and developmental milestonesChild with disorder of elimination
Assessment of household risks and safety in case of younger childrenOverdose in a child or adolescent
Assessment of level of consciousness using paediatric AVPU (Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive) scaleAltered level of consciousness in a child
Assessment of mother's level of understanding and experienceIrritable infant
Assessment of normal growth and development of a child and plotting growth parametersChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Assessment of other potential distant sites of trauma (head, neck, torso, other extremities)Hand injury
Assessment of other potential stressors and support structuresIrritable infant
Assessment of pelvic/abdominal injuryPenetrating chest trauma
Assessment of severity of clinical bleeding (vital signs, signs of shock)Vaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Assessment of the child presenting with abdominal pain and assessment of school-aged child with recurrent abdominal painChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Assessment of the infant or child presenting with an acute abdomen: examination for signs of shock, dehydration, peritonismAcute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Associated symptoms and signs: headache, pain on eye movements, ptosis or proptosisDiplopia
Awareness of advanced airway issues (such as aspiration risk, failed intubation, bronchospasm, laryngospasm), malignant hyperpyrexia, intraoperative myocardial ischaemia, patient undergoing a high-risk anaestheticPreoperative assessment and management
Awareness of association with post-partum psychosis and consideration of risks of treatment during pregnancy vs. teratogenicityBipolar affective disorder
Awareness of common causes of back painNon-specific back pain
Awareness of common co-existing disorders, e.g. depression, anxiety, personality problemsAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Awareness of commonly used sites for central venous accessPreoperative assessment and management
Awareness of differences in urine collection in children (catheter, suprapubic bladder aspirate)Febrile infant
Awareness of dysfunctional coping strategies such as alcohol, hypnosedative abuse and dependenceAnxiety disorder
Awareness of evidence-based side effects of and medical complications of contraceptionContraception
Awareness of high mortality rates with delirium tremens and the medical treatments required for thisAgitated and combative patient, Alcohol and drug dependence disorders
Awareness of mind-body interactionsAnxiety disorder
Awareness of normal mother:baby attachment and bondingPostpartum care
Awareness of prevention of sexually transmitted infections with condomsContraception
Awareness of the different grades of endometrial hyperplasia, treatment options and risk of progression to endometrial cancerPostmenopausal bleeding
Awareness of the law in NZ involving testing of minorsGenetic testing information
Awareness of WHO preoperative checklistsPreoperative assessment and management
Awareness that gonadotrophin levels are not routinely indicated for diagnosisMenopause
Bariatric surgery and its indicationsDaytime sleepiness
Barriers to healthcare access for adolescentsDysuria
Basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the choking childChild with respiratory distress
Basic management of burns; immediate and long-termBurns
Basic resuscitation and assessment of shock and hydration status (particularly relating to an infant)Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Be able to carry out a comprehensive literature review in relation to a health topicAAA screening
Be able to critically evaluate dataAAA screening
Be able to distinguish between: stertor, stridor and wheezeNeonatal stridor
Be able to evaluate a screening toolAAA screening
Be able to interpret audiology testsCongenital hearing loss
Briefly discuss the role of and limitations of cryotherapy, fluorouracil, imiquimod, curettage and electrodessication in the management of superficial non-melanoma skin cancersSkin tumours
Calculate Wells score for deep vein thrombosisDeep vein thrombosis
Calculate appropriate drug doses for individual patients by weight and body surface areaUnwell neonate, Overdose in a child or adolescent
Calculate BMIEating disorders
Calculate the estimated date of deliveryPregnancy diagnosis
Calculate the estimated delivery dateRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Cardiac arrest algorithm: shockable and unshockable rhythm, Compressions-Airway-Breathing (CAB), assess quality of resuscitation providedOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Categorise contraceptive options according to their reversibility and effectiveness, as well as timeline for return to fertilityContraception
Cause and management of a post-obstructive/acute tubular necrosis diuresisAcute kidney injury
Causes and investigation of alterations of consciousness and coma (physical examination for meningitis, raised intracranial pressure)Altered level of consciousness in a child
Causes of acute oliguric renal failureAcute kidney injury
Causes of an elevated PSAElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Causes of diabetic ketoacidosisAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Causes of hypercalcaemiaHypercalcaemia and back pain
Causes of narrow complex and broad complex tachycardiasArrhythmias
Causes, investigation and management of diffuse lung diseaseWorsening shortness of breath
Cessation of attempted resuscitationOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Changes in dosage for those on long-term steroids during intercurrent stress or illnessAdrenal crisis
Classification and differential diagnosis of jaundicePatient with jaundice
Classification of systemic sclerosis (diffuse vs limited)Painful hands in the cold
Classification of types of fractured neck of femur; outline management of neck of femur and pelvic fracturesHip fracture
Classification of plasma cell neoplasms; distinguishing monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) from myeloma; interpretation of protein electrophoresis; importance of assessment for end-organ damage in myelomaHypercalcaemia and back pain
Classification of pneumonia and assessment of severity using CURB-65 and other criteriaPneumonia
Classification of seizuresEpilepsy / seizure
Classify hypovolaemic shock according to severity based on clinical signsUpper gastrointestinal bleeding, Penetrating chest trauma
Classify heart failure by severity [New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification] and into left, right; systolic, diastolicHeart failure
Classify acute asthma into mild, moderate, severe and life-threateningSudden onset shortness of breath
Classify cardiac arrest according to the underlying cardiac rhythmOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Classify irritable bowel syndrome according to the Rome criteriaChronic bowel motility problems
Classify patients using American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) criteria and undertake a risk vs benefit assessmentPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Classify pulmonary embolism: massive, sub-massiveSudden onset shortness of breath
Classify severity of shock and renal impairmentPostoperative care
Classify the severity of angina using the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Angina Grading ScaleStable angina
Classify the severity of shockEpistaxis
Classify types and severity of shockPostoperative complications
Clear communication regarding explanation/discussion of a complex diagnosis (including investigation and management)SLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Clear description of the problem to child and family/whānau, to aid in adherence for glasses wearing; describe need to prevent and treat amblyopia, possibility of surgeryInfant with strabismus
Clinical examination as appropriate (blood pressure measurement, thyroid, breast and pelvic exam if indicated by history)Menopause
Clinical features and extra-articular complications of rheumatoid arthritisSwollen and tender joints
Clinical features of oesophageal perforationDysphagia
Clinical features of osteoarthritisSwollen and tender joints
Clinical features of retinal detachmentSudden painless loss of vision
Clinical features of STIsDysuria
Clinical features of syndromic causes of pubertal delay (especially Turner's syndrome)Child with abnormal puberty
Clinical reasoning - using key signs and symptoms to establish most likely diagnosis and managementAcute trauma to the eye
Clinical staging classification of cervical cancerAbnormal cervical smear result
Clinical toxicology; sources of help with overdosesAccidental overdose
Clinically assess: nasal patency, oral cavity, neckNeonatal stridor
Co-morbidities of patients with airways diseaseSudden onset shortness of breath
Common age-appropriate treatment methods of primary nocturnal enuresis; understand impact of constipation on the genitourinary system, behavioural interventionsChild with disorder of elimination
Common antidotes; especially cover paracetamol, warfarin, opioid and tricyclic antidepressant overdosesAccidental overdose
Common causes of acute urticaria (including food allergy, medications, insect stings and latex allergy) and chronic urticaria (idiopathic; physical causes such as dermographism and cholinergic urticaria; medications; autoimmune disease)Facial swelling and itchy rash
Common developmental skeletal anomalies (knock knees, bow legs, flat feet)Child with abnormal gait
Common organisms that cause prostatitis and suggest appropriate antibiotic treatmentElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Common primary cancers that metastasise to boneHypercalcaemia and back pain
Commonly used treatments including antimalarials, glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agentsSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Communicate in a way that enables the patient to keep as calm as possibleCompromised airway
Communicate with a patient through an interpreterHearing loss
Communicate with parents/family/whānau to establish relationship that will assist in adherence to management plan (postoperative correction of residual refractive error)Infant with an altered light reflex
Communicate with patient and family/whānau in a way that addresses health literacy needs of patient and family/whānauChild with sore joints
Communicate with patient in distress who is chokingDysphagia
Communication and examination of a patient with dementiaRest home resident with itching and rash
Communication regarding potentially embarrassing symptomsElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Communication with a patient in severe painFlank pain and dysuria
Communication with a patient who is in pain and with distressed family members; breaking bad newsBurns
Compassionate communication with patient and family/whānau when discussing cancerGross haematuria
Completing paperwork after a stillbirth or neonatal death;importance of post-mortem examination after stillbirth or neonatal death; when to refer to the coronerLabour
Complications and prognosis of haemochromatosisHaemochromatosis
Complications and prognosis of obesityObesity
Complications and prognosis of penetrating chest traumaPenetrating chest trauma
Complications and prognosis of renal calculiFlank pain and dysuria
Complications associated with eating disordersEating disorders
Complications of intravenous fluid, anticoagulant medication and urinary catheterisationPostoperative care
Complications of dementiaDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Complications of head traumaHead trauma
Complications of leukaemias and myeloma; recognise tumour lysis syndromePancytopenia
Complications of deep vein thrombosisDeep vein thrombosis
Complications of atrial fibrillationArrhythmias
Complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus and strategies to prevent themType 2 diabetes mellitus
Complications of heart failureHeart failure
Complications of a superficial injurySuperficial injuries
Complications of acute and chronic liver diseaseChronic liver disease
Complications of acute coronary syndromeAcute chest pain
Complications of alcohol and substances of abuse (including intravenous drug abuse)Alcohol and drug dependence disorders
Complications of anti-thyroid drugsHyperthyroidism
Complications of antipsychotics and benzodiazepinesDelirium / dementia
Complications of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosisChronic sputum production
Complications of burnsBurns
Complications of chronic obstructive airways diseaseChronic shortness of breath
Complications of coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel diseaseChronic bowel motility problems
Complications of dehydration and intravenous fluidInfectious disease outbreak
Complications of diabetes insipidusDiabetes insipidus
Complications of diabetic ketoacidosisAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Complications of diarrhoeaDiarrhoea
Complications of endocarditisFever and a new murmur
Complications of excess alcohol intakeAlcohol
Complications of grommets, otitis media, necrotising otitis externa, cholesteatoma, acoustic neuroma, tympanic membrane ruptureHearing loss
Complications of herniasGroin lump
Complications of hypercalcaemiaHypercalcaemia and back pain
Complications of hypothalamic amenorrhoea (infertility, osteoporosis)Amenorrhea
Complications of hypothyroidism and its treatmentHypothyroidism
Complications of intra-abdominal diseaseAcute abdominal pain
Complications of malaria, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis and tuberculosisFebrile returning traveller
Complications of malignant hypertensionSecondary hypertension
Complications of massive antepartum haemorrhage (disseminated intravascular coagulation, multiple organ failure, hysterectomy)Vaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Complications of mastectomy, lymph node dissectionBreast lump and screening
Complications of orbital infection: orbital abscess, intracranial extension of infection, loss of vision, deathChild with red swelling around one eye
Complications of oropharyngeal airway, nasopharyngeal airway, laryngeal mask airway, tracheal intubation, central line insertion, general anaesthesia, spinal anaesthesia, epidural catheter, other regional anaesthesiaPreoperative assessment and management
Complications of PCOS (infertility, long-term metabolic outcomes and risks to the endometrium)Amenorrhea
Complications of POF (infertility, osteoporosis)Amenorrhea
Complications of radio-active iodine and thyroidectomyHyperthyroidism
Complications of shoulder dislocationDislocated joint
Complications of stable anginaStable angina
Complications of streptococcal pharyngitisUpper airway disease
Complications of untreated chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilisDysuria
Complications of valvular heart diseaseValvular heart disease
Conduct a HEADSS assessmentPimples and rash on the face
Conduct a functional assessment on an older personDelirium / dementia
Conduct a HEADSS psychosocial assessmentDysuria
Conduct a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) to screen for cognitive impairmentMajor depressive episode
Conduct appropriate physical examination and investigations should the symptom profile change and be suggestive of a new or serious disorderMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Consequences of aggressive sodium correctionHyponatraemia
Consider contraceptive needs for women of reproductive age with hypertensionSecondary hypertension
Consider health literacy needs of patient and family/whānauChild with generalised swelling
Consider risk factors for adrenal disease and other autoimmune conditions; causes of adrenal insufficiencyAdrenal crisis
Consider role of other professionals in patient care - e.g. optometristsAcute trauma to the eye
Consider sampling and laboratory errors when interpreting resultsHyponatraemia
Consider the possibility of pregnancy in all women of reproductive age and perform a pregnancy testPregnancy diagnosis
Consider what investigations or referrals would be appropriateNeonatal stridor
Contact tracingDysuria
Contraception and hormone therapy during the perimenopauseHeavy menstrual periods
Contraception options in breastfeeding women, importance of planning next pregnancy especially if first baby born by caesarean sectionPostpartum care
Contraceptive options for men and women (barrier, pills, intrauterine devices (IUDs), implants, injections, vaginal ring, Essure and tubal ligation/vasectomy)Contraception
Contribution of nephrotoxic medications (e.g. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and contrast media) to acute kidney injuryAcute kidney injury
Correct technique for taking a smear, including completing formAbnormal cervical smear result
Correct technique to perform endocervical and vaginal swabsGynaecological abdominal pain
Counsel a patient about contraceptive options and give them the information to decide what would be safe, effective options for themContraception
Counselling regarding chlamydia, condom usage and contraception advice; indications and appropriateness of contraceptivesDysuria
Counselling regarding unplanned pregnancyDysuria
Course and prognosis of patients who have taken overdosesSelf-harm
Criteria for admission or discharge from Emergency DepartmentHead trauma
Criteria for referral for joint replacement and common complicationsKnee pain
Criteria for referral to psychiatric servicesPersonality disorder, Major depressive episode
De-escalation techniques to reduce aggression and violence; role of restraintDelirium / dementia
Define vertigo and differentiate it from dizziness, pre-syncope and light headednessDizziness and vertigo
Define nephrotic and nephritic syndromes; list common causesAcute kidney injury
Define polycystic kidney disease and outline its different forms, complications, and prognosisGross haematuria
Define amenorrhea and classify it as primary or secondaryAmenorrhea
Define a coup and contre-coup injuryHead trauma
Define Addisonian crisis and outline the possible presenting featuresAdrenal crisis
Define adherence, compliance and concordance with regard to prescribed medicinesGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Define diabetes insipidus and explain the two typesDiabetes insipidus
Define diarrhoeaDiarrhoea
Define Eisenmengers syndrome and how it arisesValvular heart disease
Define gestational diabetes, and distinguish from pre-existing diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2); recognise clinical features of eachDiabetes in pregnancy
Define infertility and classify it as primary or secondaryInfertility
Define monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis and explain its relationship to CLLLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Define varicose veins and intermittent claudicationChronic limb pain
Describe a rash using dermatological terminologySkin and soft tissue infection
Describe and interpret chest X-ray showing diffuse lung diseaseWorsening shortness of breath
Describe common causes of coughing, wheezing and stridor in neonates and infantsNeonatal stridor
Describe cutaneous features in dermatological terminologyBlisters
Describe cutaneous features using dermatological terminologyAdult eczema
Describe features of vomiting in young infants requiring urgent and/or surgical management (pyloric stenosis, bowel obstruction) and features of vomiting/diarrhoea in older infants (intussusception)Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Describe other common syndromes, sequences and associations encountered in infancy and childhoodFetal health
Describe potential clinical outcomes following HIV infection; infections in immunocompromised patientsFever and adenopathy
Describe signs associated with pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (retinal haemorrhages, cotton wool spots, irregular vein and arteriole caliber)Annual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Describe the autoimmune polyglandular syndromesAdrenal crisis
Describe the clinical features observed using dermatological terminologyItching child, Rest home resident with itching and rash
Describe the cutaneous features using dermatological terminologyRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains, Pimples and rash on the face
Describe the cutaneous findings using dermatological terminologyFacial swelling and itchy rash
Describe the differences in presentation, management and prognosis between low grade and high grade lymphoproliferative disordersLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Describe the range of potential postoperative complicationsPostoperative complications
Describe the range of treatments for acne vulgaris and rosacea including topical, systemic e.g. antibiotics, combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP), antiandrogens and retinoids; combined use of topical and systemic treatmentsPimples and rash on the face
Describe the surgical management of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancerSkin tumours
Describe the technique of dermoscopySkin tumours
Detailed cardiovascular examination (vital signs/pulse volumes/perfusion/heart sounds); differentiate innocent from pathological murmursInfant or child with a murmur
Detailed examination of respiratory system including assessment of acute and chronic disease and cardiovascular examinationChild with respiratory distress
Detailed history and documentation from family/caregivers of an event; obtaining validation from other carersFracture
Determine pre- and post-ductal saturations with a pulse oximeterInfant or child with a murmur
Determine the location of the lesion in Horner's syndromePupil abnormality
Development and exclusion of differential diagnoses in a non-specific presentationHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Diagnosis and eradication of H. pylori infectionUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Diagnosis and prognosis of childhood vasculitis syndromesInfant or child with easy bruising
Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and secondary prevention of osteoporotic fracturesHip fracture
Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome; use of imaging and nerve conduction studiesPainful hands in the cold
Diagnosis of hyperventilation syndromeSudden onset shortness of breath
Diagnosis of PCOS according to Rotterdam criteriaAmenorrhea
Diagnostic criteria for endocarditis (Duke criteria)Fever and a new murmur
Diagnostic criteria for sepsis, SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) and septic shockPostoperative care
Diagnostic criteria of polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis; importance of early recognition in view of the threat to visionHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Diagnostic testing for tuberculosisPneumonia
Dietary history; advice and iron prescription (adherence, safety, overdose)Infant or child with pallor
Dietetic input in chronic kidney diseaseChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Differential diagnoses of generalized anxietyAnxiety disorder
Differential diagnoses of scrotal problems: pain-predominant vs swelling-predominantAcute severe testicular pain
Differential diagnosis and investigation of fall in older peopleFalls and collapses
Differential diagnosis and investigation of pleural effusionPneumonia
Differential diagnosis and management of abnormal fetal heart rate pattern including that associated with meconiumLabour
Differential diagnosis and management of breast pain in the puerperium, specifically ensuring correct latch and excluding mastitisPostpartum care
Differential diagnosis and management of delayed labour progress: non-pharmacological, artificial rupture of membranes, syntocinon, episiotomy, ventouse, forceps and caesareanLabour
Differential diagnosis and management plan for postmenopausal bleedingPostmenopausal bleeding
Differential diagnosis for a child or adolescent with a limpOsteomyelitis
Differential diagnosis for acute and chronic panhypopituitarismPanhypopituitarism
Differential diagnosis for hot flushesMenopause
Differential diagnosis for hyperferritinaemia, including infection, inflammation, and liver disordersHaemochromatosis
Differential diagnosis of dysphagiaDysphagia
Differential diagnosis of tinnitus and vertigo; differentiating central from peripheral vertigoDizziness and vertigo
Differential diagnosis of epistaxis, nasal blockageEpistaxis
Differential diagnosis of visual lossSudden painless loss of vision
Differential diagnosis of strabismus.pdf' target='_blank' title='Click to go to: Ophthalmology'>strabismus.pdf' target='_blank' title='Click to go to: Ophthalmology'>leukocoriaInfant with an altered light reflex
Differential diagnosis of anisocoriaPupil abnormality
Differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in young childChild with respiratory distress
Differential diagnosis of rectal bleedingRectal bleeding
Differential diagnosis of haematemesisUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Differential diagnosis of dementia and deliriumDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Differential diagnosis of medically unexplained physical symptomsMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Differential diagnosis of substance abuse or alcohol dependenceAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Differential diagnosis of psychosisAcute psychosis
Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain; recognise patterns of referred painAcute abdominal pain
Differential diagnosis of syncopeArrhythmias
Differential diagnosis of headache and awareness of prevalenceHeadache
Differential diagnosis of head traumaHead trauma
Differential diagnosis of altered level of consciousnessAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Differential diagnosis of meningitis - differentiate bacterial meningitis from self-limiting viral illnessFever and headache
Differential diagnosis of pancytopeniaPancytopenia
Differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathyFever and adenopathy
Differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy +/- splenomegaly, and splenomegaly aloneLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Differential diagnosis of polycythaemia and causes of secondary polycythaemiaPolycythaemia
Differential diagnosis of hyponatraemiaHyponatraemia
Differential diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitusType 2 diabetes mellitus
Differential diagnosis of headacheSudden onset severe headache
Differential diagnosis of a neck lumpNeck lump
Differential diagnosis of a child not using a limbFracture
Differential diagnosis of a breast lump and breast painBreast lump and screening
Differential diagnosis of a facial rashSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Differential diagnosis of a goitre and thyroid noduleNeck lump
Differential diagnosis of a murmur, including non-valvular causesValvular heart disease
Differential diagnosis of a patient with headacheSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Differential diagnosis of a red facial rashPimples and rash on the face
Differential diagnosis of abdominal and pelvic massesAdult with abdominal mass
Differential diagnosis of abnormal gaitChild with abnormal gait
Differential diagnosis of abnormal results of screening for chromosomal abnormalities e.g. multiple pregnancy, incorrect datesFetal health
Differential diagnosis of abnormalities in serum sodiumDiabetes insipidus
Differential diagnosis of accidental overdoseAccidental overdose
Differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in a pregnant and a non-pregnant womanGynaecological abdominal pain
Differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in infancy and childhood including important surgical conditions (for example acute appendicitis, intussusception) which can be difficult to diagnose in infancyAcute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Differential diagnosis of acute and chronic joint painSwollen and tender joints
Differential diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal illnessDiarrhoea
Differential diagnosis of acute joint painGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Differential diagnosis of acute painful limbAcutely painful limb
Differential diagnosis of altered bowel habitChronic bowel motility problems
Differential diagnosis of amenorrhoeaAmenorrhea
Differential diagnosis of asymmetric oligoarthritis and enthesitisReactive arthritis
Differential diagnosis of autoimmune diseaseSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Differential diagnosis of autoimmune disease and fibromyalgiaPainful hands in the cold
Differential diagnosis of breathlessnessHeart failure
Differential diagnosis of cardiac arrestOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Differential diagnosis of causes of abdominal pain in late pregnancyLate pregnancy complications
Differential diagnosis of chronic limb painChronic limb pain
Differential diagnosis of chronic liver diseaseChronic liver disease
Differential diagnosis of chronic shortness of breathChronic shortness of breath
Differential diagnosis of chronic sputum productionChronic sputum production
Differential diagnosis of chronic upper abdominal symptomsChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Differential diagnosis of conductive and sensorineural hearing lossHearing loss
Differential diagnosis of daytime sleepinessDaytime sleepiness
Differential diagnosis of depression in an older personMajor depressive episode
Differential diagnosis of diplopia in adultDiplopia
Differential diagnosis of dysuria: urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted infection (STI), genital ulcers, malignancyDysuria
Differential diagnosis of fever in an older patientPneumonia
Differential diagnosis of fever of unknown originFever and adenopathy
Differential diagnosis of groin lumpGroin lump
Differential diagnosis of haemoptysisHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Differential diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding (systemic, pelvic, hormonal/functional causes)Heavy menstrual periods
Differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidismHyperthyroidism
Differential diagnosis of infertility (female, male and couple aetiologies, unexplained)Infertility
Differential diagnosis of inflammatory back painInflammatory low back pain
Differential diagnosis of insomnia in an older personMajor depressive episode
Differential diagnosis of low body massEating disorders
Differential diagnosis of mania, including rapid cyclingBipolar affective disorder
Differential diagnosis of microscopic haematuriaChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Differential diagnosis of obesityObesity
Differential diagnosis of overdose and other states of altered consciousnessSelf-harm
Differential diagnosis of perianal pathologyPerianal pathology
Differential diagnosis of periorbital redness and swelling; consider infection, sinusitis, blepharitis, eyelid abrasion, insect biteChild with red swelling around one eye
Differential diagnosis of personality disorderPersonality disorder
Differential diagnosis of polyuric patientDiabetes insipidus
Differential diagnosis of postoperative hypotension, urinary retention, pain, delirium and respiratory distressPostoperative care
Differential diagnosis of postpartum haemorrhagePostpartum care
Differential diagnosis of reduced GCSUnexplained loss of consciousness
Differential diagnosis of secondary amenorrheaPregnancy diagnosis
Differential diagnosis of secondary hypertensionSecondary hypertension
Differential diagnosis of seizures in different age groupsEpilepsy / seizure
Differential diagnosis of shoulder dislocationDislocated joint
Differential diagnosis of shoulder painShoulder pain
Differential diagnosis of stable anginaStable angina
Differential diagnosis of sudden onset shortness of breathSudden onset shortness of breath
Differential diagnosis of suicidal behaviourSelf-harm
Differential diagnosis of superficial injurySuperficial injuries
Differential diagnosis of swollen limbDeep vein thrombosis
Differential diagnosis of swollen optic nerveSudden loss of vision and headache
Differential diagnosis of the disruptive behaviour disordersDisruptive behaviour disorder
Differential diagnosis of the aggressive patient, deliriumAgitated and combative patient
Differential diagnosis of the child with swollen joints and recognition of those requiring urgent investigation and managementChild with sore joints
Differential diagnosis of the febrile returning travellerFebrile returning traveller
Differential diagnosis of thrombocytosis; differential diagnosis of granulocytosisPolycythaemia
Differential diagnosis of tremor and Parkinsonian featuresTremor and parkinsonism
Differential diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and hypoglycaemiaType 1 diabetes mellitus
Differential diagnosis of unilateral abdominal painFlank pain and dysuria
Differential diagnosis of upper airway compromiseCompromised airway
Differential diagnosis of upper airway obstruction; causes of stridor, hoarseness, ear painUpper airway disease
Differential diagnosis of upper respiratory tract symptomsUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Differential diagnosis of urethral dischargeReactive arthritis
Differential diagnosis of vomiting and absolute constipationBowel obstruction
Differentiate between cardiac and respiratory causes of shortness of breathChronic shortness of breath
Differentiate biliary atresia (obstructive jaundice) from other causes of prolonged jaundice (red flags on history; pale stools, dark urine)Infant with jaundice
Differentiate nutritional from other rarer causes of poor weight gain in infancy and early childhoodFailure to thrive
Differentiate self-limiting illness from serious bacterial illnessesUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Differentiate short stature due to familial factors from rarer causes, familial short stature, constitutional delay in growthFailure to thrive
Differentiation of nephritic and nephrotic syndromes using history, physical examination and urinalysisChild with generalised swelling
Differentiation of upper respiratory disease from lower respiratory diseaseUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Direct ophthalmoscopy to clearly identify features of diabetic retinopathyAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Disclosure of a patient’s medical information to third partyGenetic testing information
Discuss indications for skin biopsy including excision biopsy and describe how to perform a skin (punch) biopsySkin tumours
Discuss and institute appropriate therapy, topical and systemicRest home resident with itching and rash
Discuss clinical suspicion with family/whānau prior to obtaining investigations to confirm the diagnosisFetal health
Discuss contraception in the postpartum period and while breastfeeding6 week check
Discuss effect of diplopia in limitation of personal physical activities such as housework, driving, climbing stairsDiplopia
Discuss sensitively the possible diagnoses and need for further investigationsRectal bleeding
Discuss the differential diagnoses of non-pigmented and pigmented skin lesionsSkin tumours
Discuss the long-term impacts: e.g. warfarin post-valve replacementFever and a new murmur
Discuss the risk of breast cancer associated with hormone replacement therapy, based on Women's Health Initiative StudyBreast lump and screening
Discuss with patient regarding the psycho-socio-biological relationship in headachesHeadache
Distal neurovascular assessment to check for compromise of these structuresMusculoskeletal lump
Distinguish acute from chronic vision loss; distinguish between retinal causes and other common, slowly advancing, age related causes of vision loss (e.g. cataract, glaucoma)Gradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Distinguish chronic from acute red eye; differential diagnosis of the acute red eye; differential diagnosis of the chronic red eyeAcute or chronic red eye
Document fundoscopy findings with a diagram; quantify the severity of the signsAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Documentation of injuries in suspected abuseHip fracture
Driving standards for vision, return to work capabilities, occupational standards for vision (monocular and binocular)Gradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Drug therapies for the management of ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthropathies including the role of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in modifying the disease processInflammatory low back pain
Drugs that cause diabetes insipidusDiabetes insipidus
Educate on daily capillary blood glucose controlAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Educate, at an appropriate time, about prevention of anaphylaxis and self-managementCompromised airway
Effect on future fertility of ectopic, and of pelvic inflammatory diseaseGynaecological abdominal pain
Effectively communicate advice regarding lifestyleUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Effectively communicate with someone with hearing lossHearing loss
Effectiveness of treatment options in fibromyalgia: graded exercise; psychotherapy; antidepressantsPainful hands in the cold
Elicit a history from and examine a patient with, jaundice, alcohol withdrawal, haematemesisAlcohol
Elicit a history of depression from an older patient and/or collateral history from a caregiver/family/whānau memberMajor depressive episode
Elicit a collateral history from the emergency medical services, family/whānau, othersUnexplained loss of consciousness
Elicit a comprehensive booking history from a pregnant woman, focusing on risk factors for teratogenicity or fetal abnormalityFetal health
Elicit a comprehensive child psychiatric and medical history from a parent and child, focusing on disruptive behaviourDisruptive behaviour disorder
Elicit a comprehensive gynaecological history (including menstrual history, sexual history), medical, surgical and obstetric historyAmenorrhea, Infertility
Elicit a comprehensive psychiatric and medical history from a patient with bipolar affective disorderBipolar affective disorder
Elicit a comprehensive psychiatric and medical history from a patient with an anxiety disorder; consider triggersAnxiety disorder
Elicit a detailed drug and alcohol history in a sensitive and non-judgemental mannerChronic liver disease
Elicit a full gynaecological history including past medical and family historyContraception
Elicit a full gynaecological history; consider risk factors for gynaecological cancer and recognise early symptoms of gynaecological malignancyPostmenopausal bleeding
Elicit a historyInfant or child with easy bruising, Altered level of consciousness in a child
Elicit a history form a patient with upper airway diseaseUpper airway disease
Elicit a history from a fatigued patientAdrenal crisis
Elicit a history from a fatigued patient; consider autoimmune conditionsHypothyroidism
Elicit a history from a menopausal womanMenopause
Elicit a history from a patient with substance abuse or a collateral history from a colleague, screen for underlying mental illnessAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Elicit a history from a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus; consider microvascular and macrovascular complicationsType 2 diabetes mellitus
Elicit a history from a patient with visual field defects and fatiguePanhypopituitarism
Elicit a history from a patient with a neck lump; enquire regarding red flag symptomsNeck lump
Elicit a history from a patient with a personality disorder; assess for other mental health disordersPersonality disorder
Elicit a history from a patient with acute presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (diabetic ketoacidosis); be aware that this could be their first presentation; differentiate diabetic ketoacidosis from hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndromeAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Elicit a history from a patient with altered bowel habit; recognise 'red flag' symptomsChronic bowel motility problems
Elicit a history from a patient with an eating disorder including social and psychological risk factors, e.g. bullying and sexual or other abuseEating disorders
Elicit a history from a patient with disorientation; obtain appropriate collateral information (including from GP); consider risk factors for delirium and dementiaDelirium / dementia
Elicit a history from a patient with hyperthyroidism; consider other autoimmune conditionsHyperthyroidism
Elicit a history from a patient with purulent sputum; screen for risk factors for pneumonia; obtain supporting history from relatives and caregivers where possible if patient unable to provide accurate historyPneumonia
Elicit a history from a patient with testicular pain and swellingAcute severe testicular pain
Elicit a history from a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus; enquire about problems with management and disease complicationsType 1 diabetes mellitus
Elicit a history from a patient with upper respiratory tract symptoms, screen for risk factors, atopy and elicit daycare historyUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Elicit a history from a patient with vomiting; include relevant questions for underlying GI tract malignancyBowel obstruction
Elicit a history from a polydipsic, polyuric patient; consider family history, past head trauma, past meningitis and intracranial surgeryDiabetes insipidus
Elicit a history from a woman with a high risk pregnancy; complete a risk assessment for the pregnancyRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Elicit a history from a woman with bleeding late in her pregnancy, with specific reference to risk factors for placenta praevia/abruption/uterine ruptureVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Elicit a history from a woman with complications late in her pregnancy; assess risk factors for pre-eclampsia and preterm labourLate pregnancy complications
Elicit a history from a woman with postpartum complicationsPostpartum care
Elicit a history from a young patient with hypertension; family history and history of hypertension in pregnancySecondary hypertension
Elicit a history from parent or carer of a child with chronic illness and intellectual disability with no verbal communication including assessing for physical signs of chronicity (clubbing, chest deformity, contractures, dentition, nutritional status)Chronic illness in paediatrics
Elicit a history from patient and parents/caregiversChild with sore joints
Elicit a history from someone with medically unexplained physical symptoms; consider mental illness and substance abuse/addiction. Recognise patterns suggesting inappropriate use of health care servicesMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Elicit a history or collateral history from a patient experiencing acute psychosis; or from a friend or relative screen for risk factors for psychosisAcute psychosis
Elicit a history, including ingestion history (nephrotoxins, potential allergens)Child with generalised swelling
Elicit a history; attention to family history of growth delay/short stature/pubertal timingChild with abnormal puberty
Elicit a patient and/or collateral history when someone has taken an overdose and assess for concurrent mental illnessSelf-harm
Elicit a relevant history from family/whānau/patientOsteomyelitis
Elicit a relevant genitourinary history relating to lower urinary tractElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Elicit a relevant history for eye traumaAcute trauma to the eye
Elicit a relevant history from a patient with a red eyeAcute or chronic red eye
Elicit a relevant history from a patient with chronic kidney disease, including relevant drug history and co-morbiditiesChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Elicit a relevant history of visual loss and its associated featuresSudden painless loss of vision
Elicit a relevant history of gradual vision lossGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Elicit a relevant history of sudden visual loss including review of systems which focus on systemic conditions that cause blindnessSudden loss of vision and headache
Elicit a relevant history of visual development and behaviour, including eye movements, onset of strabismus, including which eye, which direction, and time and duration of strabismusInfant with strabismus
Elicit a relevant history; include family history of renal calculus and other renal diseaseFlank pain and dysuria
Elicit a relevant history; recognise that the key differentials are congenital tear duct obstruction (very common in this age group with this presentation), infective conjunctivitis (common) and congenital glaucoma (very uncommon)Watery eye in an infant
Elicit a relevant ocular and systemic history from a patient with anisocoria (unequal size pupils)Pupil abnormality
Elicit a relevant past medical history, medication history, and systems review to identify risk factors for central retinal artery occlusionSudden painless loss of vision
Elicit an accurate medication allergy historySore throat management in the New Zealand context
Elicit an acute abdomen historyAcute abdominal pain
Elicit family history (primary nocturnal enuresis, renal disease)Child with disorder of elimination
Elicit history from patient with chronic shortness of breath; obtain an 'exposure history', including an occupational history; history relevant to other conditions associated with diffuse lung diseaseWorsening shortness of breath
Elicit history of alternative medicine treatmentsDizziness and vertigo
Elicit history of ingestion (time, amount, calculate maximum quantity), and consider multiple drug ingestionOverdose in a child or adolescent
Elicit important symptoms and signs: dysuria, weight loss, polydipsia, hairy patch over sacrum, neurological abnormalities of lower limb, abnormality of anal tone, signs of hypothyroidismChild with disorder of elimination
Elicit pregnancy, neonatal and family histories with relevance to risk factors for strabismusInfant with strabismus
Elicit sensitive information, particularly of sexual activity and injecting drug useFebrile returning traveller
Elicit symptom history and clinical signs of acute rheumatic fever following a sore throat Differential diagnosis of sore throatSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Emergency management of hyperkalaemiaAcute kidney injury
Emergency management of acute haemorrhage including resuscitationVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Emergency management of diabetic emergencies (diabetic ketoacidosis, sepsis, hypoglycaemia)Diabetes in pregnancy
Emergency management of postpartum haemorrhageLabour
Emergency management of seizures and investigation of the causeSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Emergency management of seizures and status epilepticusEpilepsy / seizure
Emergency management of severe postpartum haemorrhagePostpartum care
Emergency management of the critically unwell patientFever and headache
Empathic communication with patient in severe pain whilst also taking time-efficient historyAcute abdominal pain
Empirical antibiotic (best-guess therapy) for septic arthritis based on Gram stain resultGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Enquire about sexual history, risk behaviours for HIV infection; discuss need for HIV test and implications of a positive resultFever and adenopathy
Establish a provisional treatment plan appropriate for the patient, the nature and extent of his psoriasis and his lifestyleRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Establish a relationship with patient and family/whānauAbdominal or inguinal lump
Establish a relationship with the patient and family/whānauChild with generalised swelling
Establish the psychosocial effect of psoriasis for this patient and his family/whānauRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Establish the type and duration of topical and systemic treatments that have been used previously, and evaluate any associated adverse effectsPimples and rash on the face
Establish what treatments are being used and the quantities used. Is there 'steroid phobia?'Adult eczema
Establish whether nocturnal enuresis or diurnal enuresis; establish if primary or secondary enuresisChild with disorder of elimination
Evaluate common behavioural problems of infancy and early childhoodBefore school check
Evaluate corneal clarityAcute or chronic red eye
Evaluate corneal clarity; elicit signs of corneal epithelial defects, including use of fluoresceinAcute trauma to the eye
Evaluating social history, screening for domestic violence/safety and postnatal depression6 week check
Evidence for and indications for oxygen therapy - acute and chronicChronic shortness of breath
Evidence for and indications for respiratory rehabilitationChronic shortness of breath
Examination for atopy, skin conditions, growth and developmentFood allergy in paediatrics
Examination including speculum and bimanual examination, including Chadwick sign, status of internal os and estimated size of pregnant uterusGynaecological abdominal pain
Examination including visual acuity, pupil response; assess for strabismus and nystagmus; dilate pupil and assess for lens opacities; compare ocular status of eyesInfant with an altered light reflex
Examination of anisocoria and pupil responses; examination of cranial nervesPupil abnormality
Examination of a lump (site, size, consistency, mobility, tenderness, warmth, redness)Musculoskeletal lump
Examination of a patient for adenopathy and hepatosplenomegalyFever and adenopathy
Examination of a patient post syncope; recognise signs of haemodynamic compromiseArrhythmias
Examination of a patient who has taken an accidental overdoseAccidental overdose
Examination of a patient who is pregnant including blood pressure measurement, weight and heightRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Examination of a patient with headache; elicit signs of meningism, neurological examinationFever and headache
Examination of a patient with head trauma; recognise the signs of raised intracranial pressure, including papilloedema, and base of skull fracture. Perform neurological examination to detect focal abnormalitiesHead trauma
Examination of a patient with pancytopenia; examine the lymphatic system, liver and spleen; identify possible source(s) of infectionPancytopenia
Examination of a patient with anginaStable angina
Examination of a patient with a suspected malignancy; signs of cauda equina syndrome and spinal cord compressionHypercalcaemia and back pain
Examination of a patient with breathing difficulties; recognise the signs impending airway obstructionCompromised airway
Examination of a patient with burns; estimate surface area involved using "Rule of Nines" or Lund-Browder diagramsBurns
Examination of a pregnant abdomen including palpation of uterine activityLate pregnancy complications
Examination of a pregnant woman with diabetesDiabetes in pregnancy
Examination of a pregnant woman, including abdominal assessment of uterine tone and activity, and fetal size and well-beingVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Examination of a pregnant womenFetal health
Examination of a woman in labourLabour
Examination of acute respiratory distress and other symptoms of anaphylaxis; know the signs and symptoms of an IgE mediated allergic reactionFood allergy in paediatrics
Examination of cognition, neurological system, skin and a Gait-Arms-Legs-Spine (GALS) screen; recognise signs of abuse and neglectFalls and collapses
Examination of local and distant lymph nodesMusculoskeletal lump
Examination of pain in lower limb and musculoskeletal system including referred pain from hip to kneeOsteomyelitis
Examination of the abdomen and genitals; blood pressure measurementChild with disorder of elimination
Examination of the abdomen and pelvis; including speculum and bimanual pelvic examinationHeavy menstrual periods
Examination of the abdomen including genitalsAbdominal or inguinal lump
Examination of the abdomen; ability to detect abdominal massAcute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Examination of the breast, taking into account normal differences between the lactating and non-lactating breastPostpartum care
Examination of the cardiovascular and neurological systems relevant to a patient presenting with dizzinessDizziness and vertigo
Examination of the cardiovascular system; recognise pulmonary oedema and clinical signs of heart failureHeart failure
Examination of the cardiovascular system; recognise signs of cardiogenic shockAcute chest pain
Examination of the cardiovascular system; recognise the common diastolic, systolic and continuous murmursValvular heart disease
Examination of the ear, otoscopy and full ENT examinationHearing loss
Examination of the eye and periorbital area (examining the eye by opening the lids is mandatory); visual acuity, ocular motility, pupil reactions, assessment of conjunctival chemosis and injection, proptosisChild with red swelling around one eye
Examination of the hip; clinical findings in a fractured neck of femur and in a dislocated hipHip fracture
Examination of the knee including tests of ligaments, menisci and neurovascular structuresKnee injury
Examination of the knee jointKnee pain
Examination of the lower limb venous system; perform Trendelenburg and tourniquet testsChronic limb pain
Examination of the neurological system particularly noting gait analysis, cognition, tremor, rigidity, bradykinesiaTremor and parkinsonism
Examination of the neurological system; recognise meningismSudden onset severe headache
Examination of the neurological system; recognise peripheral neuropathyChronic limb pain
Examination of the newborn, assessment of dysmorphism and congenital anomalies; outline the management of common congenital abnormalities6 week check
Examination of the patient with anaemia; recognise lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegalyAnaemia
Examination of the peripheral vascular system: grade pulses, Buerger test, recognise the different characteristics of venous, arterial and neuropathic ulcersChronic limb pain
Examination of the peripheral vascular system; recognise atrial fibrillation and acute arterial obstructionAcutely painful limb
Examination of the postnatal woman with bleeding; include abdomen, pelvic exam and speculum if indicatedPostpartum care
Examination of the respiratory systemPneumonia, Chronic sputum production
Examination of the respiratory system, identify features indicating involvement of structures by lung cancerHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Examination of the respiratory system, recognise respiratory distressChronic shortness of breath
Examination of the shoulder including test of rotator cuff and acromio-clavicular joint; include neck examination and neurovascular assessmentShoulder pain
Examination of the unconscious patient; recognise neurological findings in raised intracranial pressure and signs of base of skull fractureUnexplained loss of consciousness
Examination of the upper airway, ears and throatFood allergy in paediatrics
Examination of the young unco-operative child, including evaluation of sepsis and/or acutely unwell childFracture
Examination of vision and the endocrine systemPanhypopituitarism
Examination of young infants including abdomen and groin, normal growth and development, including plotting height, weight and head circumferenceIrritable infant
Examination, including general (to recognise anorexia, visual field defects, secondary sexual characteristics and syndromes), abdomen and pelvisAmenorrhea, Infertility
Examine a diabetic patient, recognise manifestations of diabetes and assess fluid balanceAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Examine a patient with back pain including neurological assessment and joint examinationNon-specific back pain
Examine a patient with diabetes mellitus; include foot, vascular, eye and neurological examinationsType 2 diabetes mellitus
Examine a patient with diabetes mellitus; recognise complications and cutaneous manifestations, especially associated with injection sitesType 1 diabetes mellitus
Examine a patient with high ferritin; recognise signs of end-organ damage from iron overload; identify secondary causes of hyperferritinaemiaHaemochromatosis
Examine a patient with sleep disordered breathing; assessment of the upper airwayDaytime sleepiness
Examine for important clinical signs such as neurocutaneous stigmata or congenital abnormalitiesCongenital hearing loss
Examine for lymphadenopathyGroin lump
Examine for ocular dischargeAcute or chronic red eye
Examine for signs of life and confirm cardiac arrest;check for reversible causes of cardiac arrestOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Examine the abdomenDiarrhoea
Examine the abdomen and genitalia; pelvic examination using speculum and obtain cervical smears and swabsDysuria
Examine the cardiovascular and respiratory system and consider secondary polycythaemia; examine the abdomen (document spleen size)Polycythaemia
Examine the cardiovascular system and recognise the peripheral signs of endocarditisFever and a new murmur
Examine the fatigued patient; recognise the hyperpigmentation of Addison's diseaseAdrenal crisis
Examine the hypertensive young patientSecondary hypertension
Examine the limbs, test rotator cuff function and recognise a dislocated jointDislocated joint
Examine the neck, test swallowing and determine the origin of a lumpNeck lump
Examine the polydipsic, polyuric patient; assess fluid balance and visual fieldsDiabetes insipidus
Examine the skin and describe features of systemic sclerosisPainful hands in the cold
Examine the thyroid gland; recognise a goitreHypothyroidism
Examine the thyroid gland; recognise thyroid eye disease, extra-thyroid manifestationsHyperthyroidism
Examine the upper airway and recognise airway compromiseUpper airway disease
Explain advice and support for parents about child health and development including provision of education about healthy eating and healthy activityBefore school check
Explain how to recognise skin infection and how to manage this within a householdItching child
Explain procedure of colposcopy and cervical biopsyAbnormal cervical smear result
Explain the effect of antihistaminesFacial swelling and itchy rash
Explain the possible outcomes following a needlestick injuryNeedlestick injury
Explain to a patient: general anaesthetic, regional anaesthetic, awake intubationPreoperative assessment and management
Explain to caregivers about seeking help for common symptoms in childhood including discussion on vaccine preventable disease; knowledge of immunisation protocols and contraindicationsBefore school check
Explain to caregivers about seeking help for common symptoms in infancy (including fever, rash, apneoa) as well as symptoms and signs of vaccine preventable disease and severe illness6 week check
Explain to the patient: rigid sigmoidoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopyRectal bleeding
Explain types of care for adults including respite, rest home, private hospitalFalls and collapses
Explore patient concerns about the bleeding and acknowledge bleeding may be a frightening symptomRectal bleeding
Explore the reasons for seeking contraception and ensure there is no coercion to women's choicesContraception
Features (important red flags) for non-accidental injury in history, examination and presentation timeFracture
Features that distinguish organic from functional recurrent abdominal painChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Fetal monitoring for normal and high risk labourLabour
Finding information for disease outbreaksDiarrhoea
Focused musculoskeletal examination and demonstrate the tender points required to make a diagnosis of fibromyalgiaPainful hands in the cold
Focused examination relevant to the presentation of oliguria including aspects of cardiovascular, fluid status/hydration and abdominal examinationAcute kidney injury
Focused examinations of the spine including special tests to assess ankylosing spondylitisInflammatory low back pain
Gaining collateral history from witnesses as there is often impaired consciousness/awareness in those with seizuresEpilepsy / seizure
General measures advised in treatment of SLE, such as use of sun protection including sunscreens and control of cardiovascular risk factorsSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Generic management of an overdoseAccidental overdose
Genetic testing and cancer screening in families with familial cancers; prophylactic interventions for those with inherited mutation of familial cancersAdult with abdominal mass
Genetic testing of children and the issue of consent/assentGenetic testing information
Give basic advice on management and prognosis of febrile seizuresAltered level of consciousness in a child
Grade the severity of chronic liver disease using recognised scoring systemsChronic liver disease
Gynaecological examination including abdomen, pelvis, inguinal nodes, speculumPostmenopausal bleeding
Gynaecological examination including abdominal, vaginal and speculum examinations when indicated (including stress test and pelvic floor tone)Urinary incontinence in women
Gynaecological examination including pelvic examination, speculumAbnormal cervical smear result
History and examination of a child including ears, upper airway and throat examination Know the clinical ‘red flags’ for airway obstruction such as drooling, stridorSore throat management in the New Zealand context
History and examination to distinguish serious bacterial infections from intercurrent viral infections; include antenatal history and 20-week anatomy ultrasoundFebrile infant
History and physical examination of functional status and developmentChronic illness in paediatrics
History and/or a collateral history from a patient who has taken an accidental overdose; consider deliberate self-harmAccidental overdose
History from a breathless patient; consideration of symptoms of heart failureHeart failure
History from a confused patient, being aware of the benefits and limitations of a collateral historyHyponatraemia
History from a febrile patientFebrile returning traveller
History from a jaundiced patient, including information relevant to risk factors and complications of liver diseaseChronic liver disease
History from a jaundiced patient; include risk factors for hepatitis virus infection, drug, alcohol, sexual, travel and occupational informationPatient with jaundice
History from a major trauma patient, including collateral historyAltered level of consciousness in an adult
History from a parent and child with hearing or ear complaintsGlue ear
History from a patient and her midwife during labourLabour
History from a patient and parent regarding swelling around the eye, and elicit a relevant history for sight/life threatening orbital cellulitis as distinct from other causes of lid swellingChild with red swelling around one eye
History from a patient in a surgical pre-admission clinic; take a medication historyPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
History from a patient or witness following a syncopal episode; indication for hospital admissionArrhythmias
History from a patient post-fall and/or collateral history; include nutritional assessmentFalls and collapses
History from a patient who has multiple co-existing conditions, where medication history may be unclearChronic limb pain
History from a patient with hearing loss and associated symptomsHearing loss
History from a patient with rectal bleedingRectal bleeding
History from a patient with acute and chronic back pain including red flag symptomsNon-specific back pain
History from a patient with headache and feverFever and headache
History from a patient with headache including analgesia rebound headache and migraineHeadache
History from a patient with head trauma and/or take the history from a witness; recognise symptoms that are important in determining the severity of head traumaHead trauma
History from a patient with pancytopenia; consider malignant and non-malignant causes of pancytopeniaPancytopenia
History from a patient with anaemia; consider nutritional deficiencies, inherited anaemias, blood loss, inflammatory disorders and malignanciesAnaemia
History from a patient with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly; assess symptoms that might differentiate infectious from neoplastic lymphoproliferative causesLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
History from a patient with polycythaemia; consider secondary polycythaemia; recognise symptoms of hyperviscosityPolycythaemia
History from a patient with acute chest pain; consideration of cardiovascular risk factorsAcute chest pain
History from a patient with a headache; recognise a migrainous aura and subarachnoid haemorrhageSudden onset severe headache
History from a patient with a murmur and determine functional status; consider risk factors for rheumatic feverValvular heart disease
History from a patient with a murmur and risk factors for endocarditisFever and a new murmur
History from a patient with a needlestick injuryNeedlestick injury
History from a patient with a new lumpMusculoskeletal lump
History from a patient with a seizure; discuss alcohol intakeEpilepsy / seizure
History from a patient with a swollen jointKnee pain, Knee injury
History from a patient with a swollen limb; assess risk factors for a deep vein thrombosisDeep vein thrombosis
History from a patient with abdominal distension; include consideration of malignancyAdult with abdominal mass
History from a patient with acute limb injuryDislocated joint
History from a patient with acute limb ischaemiaAcutely painful limb
History from a patient with acute shortness of breath; relevant history for a patient with asthma including circumstances of acute attack and background control;relevant history for a patient with anaphylaxis/laryngeal odema; relevant history for a patient with pneumothorax; relevant history for a patient with pulmonary embolismSudden onset shortness of breath
History from a patient with an intracerebral lesionSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
History from a patient with burns and/or a witnessBurns
History from a patient with chronic limb pain; assess cardiovascular risk factors, recognise the characteristic symptomatology of intermittent claudication and spinal stenosisChronic limb pain
History from a patient with chronic shortness of breath (including impact on day to day function, current treatment, level of control, morbidity, co-morbidities)Chronic shortness of breath
History from a patient with chronic sputum productionChronic sputum production
History from a patient with diabetes, that is relevant to maintaining vision; consider duration of diabetes, diabetic control,treatment adherence, blood pressure control, smoking, diet, weightAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
History from a patient with feverFever and a new murmur
History from a patient with fever and adenopathyFever and adenopathy
History from a patient with frank haematuria; assess risk factors for renal and bladder cancer, including a detailed employment and family historyGross haematuria
History from a patient with gastrointestinal bleedingUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
History from a patient with gastrointestinal illness including exposure history for patients with vomiting and/or diarrhoeaDiarrhoea
History from a patient with light headedness or 'dizziness'Dizziness and vertigo
History from a patient with minor trauma; assess for symptoms of early cognitive decline; consider risk factors for deliberate self-harm and non-accidental injuriesSuperficial injuries
History from a patient with neuromuscular symptomsNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
History from a patient with new onset focal neurology; features distinguishing central and peripheral neurological lesionsStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
History from a patient with obesity including use of the Epworth Sleepiness ScaleObesity
History from a patient with possible vasculitisHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
History from a patient with postoperative complicationsPostoperative complications
History from a patient with progressive cognitive decline, including a collateral historyDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
History from a patient with rectal bleeding; seek information relevant to inflammatory bowel diseasePerianal pathology
History from a patient with reflux, dyspepsia; recognise red flag symptomsChronic upper abdominal symptoms
History from a patient with shoulder painShoulder pain
History from a patient with stable angina; consider cardiovascular risk factorsStable angina
History from a patient with suspected malignancy; identify 'red flags' and 'yellow flags'(psychosocial indicators) of back pain; symptoms of hypercalcaemiaHypercalcaemia and back pain
History from a patient, or family, with suspected hereditary diseaseHaemochromatosis
History from a postoperative patient with hypotension, urinary retention, pain (communicative and non-communicative), respiratory distressPostoperative care
History from a pregnant woman with elevated blood glucose levels, specifically assessing for risk factors for diabetesDiabetes in pregnancy
History from a trauma patientNeck injury
History from a trauma patient and/or witness including managing patient and family/whānau distressPenetrating chest trauma
History from a witness of the cardiac arrestOut of hospital cardiac arrest
History from a woman presenting with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding including information on contraceptive use and risk factors for ectopic pregnancy and miscarriageGynaecological abdominal pain
History from a woman with a breast lump; include family history, gynaecological history, risk factors for breast cancer, mammogram profile to dateBreast lump and screening
History from a woman with urinary incontinence; differentiate stress, urge, mixed and neurologicalUrinary incontinence in women
History from a young woman with dysuria; sexual history and include risk factors for an STIDysuria
History from an agitated patient; elicit a collateral history; assess risk factors for deliriumAgitated and combative patient
History from and examine a patient with diarrhoea, vomitingInfectious disease outbreak
History from caregiver including antenatal historyAbdominal or inguinal lump
History from caregiver with consideration of red flags (blood in stools, vomiting bile)Acute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
History from parent/carer; recognise the differences in history taking when dealing with children; document immunisation statusChild with respiratory distress
History from patient who has had a fall; be aware of limitations when a patient has confusionHip fracture
History from someone with dysphagia; recognise red flag symptomsDysphagia
History from someone with an abnormal smear result; focus on sexual, gynaecological and reproductive historyAbnormal cervical smear result
History from the patient and a collateral history from family/whānau and staff involved in careAcute kidney injury
History from the patient with fatigue (including possible psychological component, stress); recognise red flag symptomsChronic upper abdominal symptoms
History of a hand trauma; be aware that the history may be unreliable in certain situationsHand injury
History of a musculoskeletal traumaForearm / wrist injury
History of a patient with a tremor and worsening gaitTremor and parkinsonism
History of an immediate allergic reaction, history of likely triggers and taking history of food consumption, including infant feeding and introduction of different foodsFood allergy in paediatrics
History of diplopia: type (e.g. intermittent vs constant, monocular vs binocular, vertical vs horizontal), history of previous strabismus surgery, variation of diplopia for near and distance gaze, variation of diplopia for primary position and other gaze positions, variation of diplopia during day (worsening by the end of the day, worsening with fatigue)Diplopia
History of heavy menstrual bleeding including a menstrual, sexual and gynaecological history, and symptoms of anaemiaHeavy menstrual periods
History of inflammatory back pain in order to distinguish it from the more common non-specific mechanical low back painInflammatory low back pain
History of nasal symptomsEpistaxis
History of possible autoimmune disease vs fibromyalgiaPainful hands in the cold
History of psoriasis, related conditions and previous management (how treatments were used, efficacy and side effects)Rash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
History of symptoms associated with spondyloarthritis.pdf' target='_blank' title='Click to go to: Rheumatology'>spondyloarthritis.pdf' target='_blank' title='Click to go to: Rheumatology'>spondyloarthritis.pdf' target='_blank' title='Click to go to: Rheumatology'>reactive arthritis; include sexual historyReactive arthritis
History or a collateral history for a patient with breathing difficultiesCompromised airway
History relating to a groin lump in male and femaleGroin lump
How to assess pallorInfant or child with pallor
How to prescribe antibiotics for eradication of group A streptococcus (duration minimum 10 days, adherence)Sore throat management in the New Zealand context
Identification of common barriers to engagement and the development of therapeutic relationship in patients with borderline and anti-social personality disordersPersonality disorder
Identification of population at high risk (sore throat in Māori and Pacific children/adults from age 4 years to 35 years)Sore throat management in the New Zealand context
Identify 'red flags' on examination for malignancy (lympadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, bone tenderness)Infant or child with easy bruising
Identify barriers to the diagnosis of depression, i.e. the role of stigmaMajor depressive episode
Identify common types and causes of anaemia in infancy and childhoodInfant or child with pallor
Identify features (red flags) in history and examination that suggest possible non-accidental injury (very young child, unexplained bruises, unusual sites, delay in seeking medical attention)Infant or child with easy bruising
Identify important associated features of examination of a mass that might represent malignancy and the necessary secondary investigationsAbdominal or inguinal lump
Identify other affected residentsRest home resident with itching and rash
Identify risk factors present at the start of this pregnancy, and list complications that may arise as a result of these risk factorsRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Identify shockable ECG rhythms – ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillationOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Identify signs and symptoms of cardiac failureInfant or child with a murmur
Identify signs of limbal ischaemiaAcute trauma to the eye
Identify the appearance and outline the management of an auricular haematomaHead trauma
Identify the possible causes for a fall, keeping in mind the multifactorial nature of falls in older peopleHip fracture
If adolescent: HEADSS assessment and interviewing a child without parent/carerChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Immediate assessment of the sick child (severity of the respiratory distress and signs of impending respiratory failure)Child with respiratory distress
Immunological complications of lymphoproliferative disorders: hypogammaglobuinaemia, immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Importance of iron deficiency long-term (effects on learning, diminished immune response to infection)Infant or child with pallor
Importance of early antimicrobial therapy and its influence on microbiological testingFever and headache
Importance of information/education, need to consider health literacy needs of patient and family/whānauChild with respiratory distress
Importance of postnatal care including breastfeeding support, contraception advice, diabetic follow-up or screening (if gestational diabetes)Diabetes in pregnancy
Important differentiation of signs of upper airway obstruction versus lower airway obstruction in a childChild with respiratory distress
Important features of examination of a neonateFetal health
Indication and timing for trauma series X-raysNeck injury
Indication for throat swab in high risk patientSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Indication for use of antibiotics for sore throatSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Indications and contraindications for local anaesthetic or steroid injectionShoulder pain
Indications and contraindications for local and systemic hormone therapy; discussing prescribing options with patientsMenopause
Indications and guidelines for biopsyMusculoskeletal lump
Indications and interpretation of common investigations for stroke aetiology: electrocardiogram, coagulation screen, carotid doppler USS, CT angiogram, MR angiogram, and venous duplex scansStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Indications and perform femoral nerve blockHip fracture
Indications and preparations(including consent/second opinion) for ECT; side-effects of ECTMajor depressive episode
Indications for renal and bladder ultrasoundAcute kidney injury
Indications for abdominal CT, abdominal ultrasound, transvaginal ultrasound, diagnostic laparoscopyAcute abdominal pain
Indications for CT abdomen, MR abdomen, abdominal ultrasound, transvaginal ultrasound, endoscopy, ascitic tap, guided biopsy of massAdult with abdominal mass
Indications for abdominal and duplex ultrasound, CT abdomen/pelvis, biopsyGroin lump
Indications for abdominal ultrasound, CT abdomen, endoscopy, fibroscan, liver biopsyChronic liver disease
Indications for admission to hospital for treatment; role of intravenous corticosteroids in management; understanding and management of acute and long-term complications of anti-inflammatory corticosteroid treatment including osteoporosis prophylaxisSudden loss of vision and headache
Indications for amputationChronic limb pain
Indications for an adrenaline autoinjector (such as EpiPen) and medical alert braceletCompromised airway
Indications for and effectiveness of emergency contraceptive pill and postcoital IUDContraception
Indications for and interpretation of investigations: including stools, full blood count, electrolytes, full septic screen, blood gasInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Indications for and interpretation of investigations; throat swab, bloods, sputum culture, allergy testsUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Indications for and principles of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis; access for both types of dialysis (lines, catheters, fistulae)Chronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Indications for arterial duplex ultrasound, angiogram, MR venogram, MR angiogramAcutely painful limb
Indications for assessing erythropoietin level , molecular tests (JAK2 and BCR-ABL), and bone marrow biopsyPolycythaemia
Indications for audiogram, CT head, MRI head, audio-evoked potentialsHearing loss
Indications for audiogram, CT head, MRI head, nasal endoscopy, nasal biopsyEpistaxis
Indications for basic biochemical blood test, echocardiogram, Holter monitoring, CT, MRI and electroencephalography (EEG) for investigating 'funny turns'Epilepsy / seizure
Indications for chest CT, bronchoscopy, and other investigationsHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Indications for chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis and advanced ultrasound scanningFetal health
Indications for cognitive and learning assessment in a child/adolescentDisruptive behaviour disorder
Indications for colonoscopy, rigid sigmoidoscopy, CT and MRIPerianal pathology
Indications for conservative and surgical intervention including position of calculus in renal tractFlank pain and dysuria
Indications for continuous cardiac monitoringAccidental overdose
Indications for CT abdomen and pelvis, rigid sigmoidoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopyRectal bleeding
Indications for CT abdomen, abdominal ultrasoundBowel obstruction
Indications for CT abdomen/pelvis, CT pulmonary angiogram, ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scanPostoperative complications
Indications for CT and MRI imaging in dementiaDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Indications for CT chest and bronchoscopyPneumonia
Indications for CT chest, broncoscopy, laryngeal biopsy, upper airway endoscopyUpper airway disease
Indications for CT head, CT neck, CT chest/abdomen/pelvisNeck injury
Indications for CT Head, MRI brain, CT angiogram, MR angiogram, electroencephalogram, brainstem testing, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedureUnexplained loss of consciousness
Indications for CT head, MRI brain, lumbar punctureAgitated and combative patient
Indications for CT pulmonary angiogramPostoperative care
Indications for CT scan, CT angiogram, MRI and MR angiogramSudden onset severe headache
Indications for CT shoulder, MRI shoulder, arthroscopyDislocated joint
Indications for CT, MRI, ultrasound scanningBurns
Indications for detailed pulmonary function tests, CT pulmonary angiogram, V/Q scanSudden onset shortness of breath
Indications for echocardiogramPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Indications for echocardiogram, angiogram, myocardial perfusion scans, cardiac MRIHeart failure
Indications for echocardiogram, dobutamine stress echocardiogram, angiogramValvular heart disease
Indications for echocardiogram, exercise stress testing, myocardial perfusion scanning, CT angiogram, percutaneous coronary angiographyStable angina
Indications for endoscopy, biopsy, abdominal ultrasound; complications of endoscopyChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Indications for endoscopy, CT angiography, capsule endoscopy, selective angiography and embolisationUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Indications for endoscopy, CT, videofluoroscopy, contrast swallow, oesophageal manometryDysphagia
Indications for family screeningRectal bleeding
Indications for follow-up of abnormal smears and appropriate referral to colposcopy services as per National Screening Unit guidelinesAbnormal cervical smear result
Indications for grommet placementGlue ear
Indications for haemofiltration/haemodialysis in acute renal failureAcute kidney injury
Indications for haemolysis screen, bone marrow biopsy, faecal occult blood, and gastrointestinal tract endoscopiesAnaemia
Indications for head and neck CT or MRIHeadache
Indications for high resolution CT, detailed pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopyChronic shortness of breath
Indications for Holter monitor, echocardiogram, cardiac MRI, electrophysiology studiesArrhythmias
Indications for imaging including CT, MRI, Retinal angiography, XrayAcute trauma to the eye
Indications for intracranial imaging in a 'dizziness' presentationDizziness and vertigo
Indications for intubation, central line insertion and intensive care unit (ICU) admissionNeck injury
Indications for joint aspirationKnee injury
Indications for joint aspiration and joint washoutKnee pain
Indications for laryngeal mask, tracheal intubation, cricothyroidotomy, tracheostomy, rapid sequence induction, awake intubation, central venous cannulation, echocardiogram, pulmonary function tests/spirometry, arterial pressure monitoring, catheterisation for urine output monitoring, BIS (bispectral index monitoring for awareness), ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesiaPreoperative assessment and management
Indications for laryngoscopy, flexible bronchoscopy, surgical airway manoeuvres, C1 esterase, antigen-specific IgECompromised airway
Indications for limb amputationAcutely painful limb
Indications for lumbar puncture, visual evoked responses, nerve conduction studies, CT and MRINeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Indications for lymph node biopsy (fine needle aspirate [FNA], core biopsy and excisional biopsy), CT scanning, bone marrow biopsyLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Indications for medical interventions such as noninvasive ventilation, gastrostomy, orthopaedic surgeryChronic illness in paediatrics
Indications for medications in Parkinson's disease; effects of therapy on disease progressionTremor and parkinsonism
Indications for microbiology/virology swabsWatery eye in an infant
Indications for nasogastric and nasojejeunal tubes, enteral stent, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and parenteral feedingDysphagia
Indications for neuroradiology and other investigations to elicit the cause of tremor and/or dyskinesiaTremor and parkinsonism
Indications for pelvic ultrasound, androgen profile, pituitary MRIAmenorrhea
Indications for pituitary function tests (including urgent prolactin, cortisol), visual field tests and MRI brainPanhypopituitarism
Indications for plain X-ray, ultrasound scan and MRIShoulder pain
Indications for pleural aspiration and intercostal tube insertionPneumonia
Indications for pregnancy test, dexamethasone suppression tests, MR angiography and renal ultrasoundSecondary hypertension
Indications for radio-isotope scanHyperthyroidism
Indications for referral for liver transplantation if requiredChronic liver disease
Indications for removal of iatrogenic devicesPostoperative complications
Indications for renal biopsy in lupus nephritis/acute nephritisSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Indications for renal ultrasound, renal biopsy (including contraindications)Chronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Indications for splenectomy; requirement for vaccination post-splenectomyPenetrating chest trauma
Indications for surgical management of secondary hypertensionSecondary hypertension
Indications for swabs, smear, endometrial biopsy (Pipelle), diagnostic hysteroscopy and curettage, colposcopy, transvaginal ultrasoundHeavy menstrual periods
Indications for temporal artery biopsyHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Indications for therapeutic hypothermia, thrombolysis for massive pulmonary embolus, pericardiocentesis for cardiac tamponade, needle thoracotomy for tension pneumothoraxOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Indications for trauma CT chest/abdomen/pelvis scans, CT head and neck and arterial contrast studiesAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Indications for trauma series X-rays, further imaging, Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scanningPenetrating chest trauma
Indications for ultrasoundAcute severe testicular pain
Indications for ultrasound abdomen, CT abdomen, endoscopic ultrasound, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), liver biopsyPatient with jaundice
Indications for ultrasound abdomen, transvaginal ultrasound (recognise the implications of obesity as a risk factor for endometrial hyperplasia/cancer), sleep studiesObesity
Indications for ultrasound and CT in renal tract imagingFlank pain and dysuria
Indications for ultrasound scan and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA), excision biopsy, radioisotope scan, CT scanNeck lump
Indications for urgent fasciotomy and effects of delay in treatmentForearm / wrist injury
Indications for venous duplex ultrasound of the lower limb and thrombophilia screenDeep vein thrombosis
Indications for water deprivation testDiabetes insipidus
Indications for, and methods of cardioversionArrhythmias
Indications for, and potential repercussions of genetic testingHaemochromatosis
Indications for, and principles of, carotid endarterectomyStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Indications for: continuous fetal monitoring, induction and augmentation of labour, fetal blood testing, emergency deliveryLabour
Indications for: echocardiogram, angiography, CT angiogram, exercise tolerance test, dobutamine stress echocardiogram, myocardial perfusion studiesAcute chest pain
Indications for: high resolution CT, detailed pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy, sweat chloride test, serum immunoglobulin quantitation, genotypingChronic sputum production
Indications venous duplex ultrasound, angiogram, MR angiogram, MR venogramChronic limb pain
Infectious complications of lymphoproliferative disorders and immunosuppression, including herpes zoster and infection with atypical organisms; management of herpes zosterLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Information management (e.g. you might want to check your own practice records to determine whether being overweight or obese are major issues among your patients, and how this compares with what is observed nationwide)Childhood obesity
Information-gathering in a situation where a patient is vague about the historyFalls and collapses
Informing a patient of the benefits and risks of genetic testing; discussion of genetic discrimination (health insurers and employers)Genetic testing information
Inhospital management of stroke and TIA; use of antiplatelet drugs for secondary prophylaxis; inhospital care from stroke unitStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Initial steps of managing an unconscious patientAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Initiate appropriate antibiotic therapyUnwell neonate
Injuries associated with burnsBurns
Insert a peripheral venous catheterPreoperative assessment and management
Institute emergency management if there are features of anaphylaxis or airway compromise; a medium term therapy with avoidance of precipitants (where needed) and antihistaminesFacial swelling and itchy rash
Interpret iron studiesHaemochromatosis
Interpret cervical smear, swabs, tumour markers, reports from transvaginal ultrasound, endometrial biopsy/curettingsPostmenopausal bleeding
Interpret chest X-rayChronic shortness of breath
Interpret chest X-ray, arterial blood gas, coagulation screen, CSF analysis, blood glucose levelHead trauma
Interpret chest X-ray, full blood count, sputum culture, sputum cytologyHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Interpret chest X-ray, full blood count, sputum culture, sputum cytology, arterial blood gas, urinary antigens, sputum culture, serological testingPneumonia
Interpret chest X-rayInfant or child with a murmur
Interpret chest X-ray, ECG, abdominal X-ray, full blood count, renal function tests, liver function tests, coagulation screen, C-reactive proteinPostoperative complications
Interpret hand X-ray, full blood countSuperficial injuries
Interpret lumbar spine X-rays and understand indications for MRI and CT spine scansNon-specific back pain
Interpret shoulder X-rayDislocated joint
Interpret abdominal X-ray, full blood count, electrolytes, creatinine, liver function tests, erect chest X-ray, ascitic fluid pathology reportAdult with abdominal mass
Interpret abdominal X-ray, full blood count, electrolytes, creatinine, liver function tests, coagulation screen, erect chest X-rayBowel obstruction
Interpret synovial fluid analysisGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Interpret full blood count, inflammatory markers, iron studies, Coombs testInfant or child with pallor
Interpret skin scrapings, skin swabs and blood culturesSkin and soft tissue infection
Interpret a full blood count, electrolytes, renal function tests, coagulation screen, chest X-ray, troponinPostoperative care
Interpret ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI)Chronic limb pain
Interpret arterial Doppler, ankle:brachial pressure index, ECGAcutely painful limb
Interpret audiometry and tympanometry at a basic levelGlue ear
Interpret biochemistry results of an ascitic tapAlcohol
Interpret blood cultures, erect chest X-ray, abdominal X-ray, ECG, serum amylaseAcute abdominal pain
Interpret blood cultures, midstream urine, ECG, echocardiogramFever and a new murmur
Interpret blood glucose levels, ketones, urine dipstick, HbA1c; know how to use and interrogate blood glucose meterType 1 diabetes mellitus
Interpret blood test of renal function, urinalysis and culture, urinary protein/albumin creatinine ratioChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Interpret coeliac disease serology, iron studies, vitamin B12/folate, faecal elastaseChronic bowel motility problems
Interpret common electrolyte abnormalities associated with intracerebral lesionsSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Interpret CRP, antibiotic levels, full blood countHearing loss
Interpret D-dimer resultDeep vein thrombosis
Interpret ECG, blood glucose level, postural blood pressureFalls and collapses
Interpret electrolytes, BNP, chest X-rayHeart failure
Interpret FBC with differential, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) , C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid profile, and other relevant blood test results, carotid artery evaluation (Doppler ultrasound) and cardiac investigationsSudden painless loss of vision
Interpret FBC, vitamin B12/folate levels, autoantibodies, Schillings test, urea breath testing, liver function testsChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Interpret FBC, electrolytes, creatinine, liver function tests, vitamin B12/folateDysphagia
Interpret FBC, electrolytes, creatinine, liver function tests, iron studies and coagulation studiesUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Interpret full blood count and blood film report in a patient with a myeloproliferative neoplasm: polycythaemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, primary myelofibrosis and chronic myeloid leukaemiaPolycythaemia
Interpret full blood count in a patient with CLLLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Interpret full blood count, arterial blood gas, chest X-ray, abdominal X-ray, limb plain film X-ray and pelvic X-rayPenetrating chest trauma
Interpret full blood count, blood cultures, conjunctival swabs, CT orbits/sinusesChild with red swelling around one eye
Interpret full blood count, blood glucose level, arterial blood gas, pathology report on CSF, ECG, chest X-rayUnexplained loss of consciousness
Interpret full blood count, blood group, endocervical/vaginal swabs, ultrasound scan, midstream urine, cervical smear, serum beta-HCGGynaecological abdominal pain
Interpret full blood count, coagulation screen, pathology report on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)Sudden onset severe headache
Interpret full blood count, coagulation screen, urea, electrolytes, C-reactive protein, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)Epistaxis
Interpret full blood count, electrolytes, creatinine, liver function tests, coagulation screenRectal bleeding
Interpret full blood count, electrolytes, liver function tests, blood glucose level, calcium, thyroid function tests, vitamin B12/folate, toxicology screen, pathology report on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), chest X-ray, syphilis serology, short synthacen testAgitated and combative patient
Interpret full blood count, electrolytes, renal function, skin swabs, blood cultures, chest X-ray, liver function tests, coagulation screenBurns
Interpret full blood count, ferritinHeavy menstrual periods
Interpret full blood count, renal function tests, prostate specific antigen (PSA), midstream urine, ultrasound, pathology report of transrectal/prostatic biopsyElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Interpret full blood count, renal function, liver function tests, coagulation screen, ECG, chest X-ray, pulmonary function tests/spirometry, HbA1c, blood group and antibody screenPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Interpret full blood count, reticulocyte count, iron studies, vitamin B12/folate levels, and result from haemoglobinopathy screenAnaemia
Interpret full blood count, serum tryptase, serum lactate, arterial blood gas, blood cultures, sputum cultures, C1 esterase levels , antigen-specific IgECompromised airway
Interpret hepatitis B and C and HIV serology, full blood count, liver function testsNeedlestick injury
Interpret inflammatory markers, ECG, joint aspirateChild with sore joints
Interpret investigations for causes of obesity (overnight dexamethasone suppression test, 24 hour urinary cortisol, thyroid function tests); interpret investigations for complications of obesity (liver function tests, HbA1c, urine albumin:creatinine ratio, lipid profile, serum testosterone)Obesity
Interpret investigations for secondary hypertension: 24 hour urine collection for cortisol, serum renin:aldosterone ratio, serum metanephrinesSecondary hypertension
Interpret lateral neck X-ray for soft tissue swellingUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Interpret liver function tests, albumin, coagulation screen, hepatitis serologyPatient with jaundice
Interpret liver function tests, albumin, coagulation screen, hepatitis serology, ascitic fluid pathology reportChronic liver disease
Interpret lumbar puncture, visual evoked responses, nerve conduction studies, CT and MRI resultsNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Interpret lung function tests of restrictive lung disease (lung volumes, flows, diffusing capacity, arterial blood gas)Worsening shortness of breath
Interpret midstream urineAcute severe testicular pain
Interpret midstream urine and urinary diaryUrinary incontinence in women
Interpret midstream urine, urine cytology, pathology report of biopsy (taken at cystoscopy)Gross haematuria
Interpret midstream urine, vaginal swabs, urethral swabs, urine dipstick, chlamydia swabs and urine antigen testing, viral swabs and pregnancy testDysuria
Interpret pharmacological tests for pupil abnormalitiesPupil abnormality
Interpret plasma and urinary sodium and osmolalityHyponatraemia
Interpret pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray, C-reactive protein (CRP), full blood count, coagulation screen, C1 esterase levelsUpper airway disease
Interpret relevant imaging studies (X-ray, CT, MRI)Pupil abnormality
Interpret relevant investigations for both partnersInfertility
Interpret relevant investigations including an arterial or venous blood gas; blood acid-base balance, blood glucoseAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Interpret relevant investigations including full blood count, coagulation screen, electrolytes, creatinine, liver function tests, CRPPerianal pathology
Interpret relevant investigations: anticonvulsant levels, imaging (in context of deformity and osteopenia)Chronic illness in paediatrics
Interpret relevant investigations: cardiotocograph (CTG), fetal scalp samples including lactate, cord blood gasesLabour
Interpret relevant investigations: electrolytes, blood glucose, hormonal screening, thiamine and B12 levels, toxicology screen, imagingAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Interpret relevant investigations: electrolytes, hormonal screening, toxicology screenBipolar affective disorder
Interpret relevant investigations: electrolytes, hormonal screening, toxicology screen, ECG, imagingMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Interpret relevant investigations: electrolytes, hormonal screening, toxicology screen, imagingAnxiety disorder, Eating disorders, Acute psychosis, Personality disorder, Delirium / dementia
Interpret relevant investigations: electrolytes, hormonal screening, toxicology screen,imagingMajor depressive episode
Interpret relevant investigations: electrolytes, hormonal screening, urine and other toxicology screens, carboxy-haemoglobin level, ECG, imagingSelf-harm
Interpret relevant investigations: full blood count, blood group, electrolytes, renal and liver function tests, coagulation studies, glucose, urine culture, urine protein:creatinine ratio, ultrasound scan, cardiotocography (CTG), fetal fibronectin, Kleihauer testLate pregnancy complications
Interpret relevant investigations: full blood count, blood group, Kleihauer test, blood group and hold or crossmatch as indicated, coagulation screen, cardiotocography (CTG), ultrasoundVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Interpret results of antenatal screening testsFetal health
Interpret results of sputum culture (past and present), chest X-rayChronic sputum production
Interpret routine and relevant additional antenatal investigations, such as ultrasound and early diabetes testingRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Interpret routine blood investigations including full blood count, renal function and liver function testsAlcohol
Interpret routine blood investigations such as full blood count, renal function and liver function testsInfectious disease outbreak
Interpret serum and urine osmolality, urine dipstickDiabetes insipidus
Interpret serum antibody tests for EBV and CMV infection (IgG vs IgM)Fever and adenopathy
Interpret serum electrolytes and renal function tests, blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biochemistry, CSF microscopy/culture/PCRFever and headache
Interpret the paracetamol treatment nomogramSelf-harm
Interpret thyroid function tests and auto-antibody testsHyperthyroidism
Interpret thyroid function tests and understand the limitations of the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid cancerNeck lump
Interpret troponin, cardiac enzymes, C-reactive proteinAcute chest pain
Interpret tumour markers (CEA, CA-125, CA19-9)Adult with abdominal mass
Interpret urine dipstick, HbA1c, urine albumin:creatinine ratio and ECGType 2 diabetes mellitus
Interpret urine dipstick, renal function blood tests and acid-base status, urine and plasma osmolality and sodiumAcute kidney injury
Interpret urine toxicology, drug levels,blood glucose level, full blood count, arterial blood gas, coagulation screen, digoxin level, ECG, chest X-rayAccidental overdose
Interpretation and communication of clinical audit dataClinical audit
Interpretation of pelvis X-rayHip fracture
Interpretation of plain X-rays of the shoulder and clavicleShoulder pain
Interpretation of X-rays of the kneeKnee injury
Interpretation of X-rays of the wrist and forearm and identify common fracture patternsForearm / wrist injury
Interpretation of plain films of the C-spineNeck injury
Interpretation of basic laboratory tests to diagnose causes of neonatal jaundice and prolonged neonatal jaundice (classification of unconjugated and conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia with 'differential' bilirubin as a starting point before further investigation)Infant with jaundice
Interpretation of blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid and urine microbiology/dipstickFebrile infant
Interpretation of blood film; recognise findings suggestive of leukaemiaPancytopenia
Interpretation of blood test results (inflammatory markers, thyroid function)Osteomyelitis
Interpretation of calcium, phosphate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levelHypercalcaemia and back pain
Interpretation of caloric testingDizziness and vertigo
Interpretation of full blood count and coagulation profileInfant or child with easy bruising
Interpretation of laboratory data (urine, blood parameters for chronic disease)Chronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Interpretation of laboratory data (urine, blood parameters)Acute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Interpretation of lateral neck X-ray and other Xray for inhaled foreign bodyFood allergy in paediatrics
Interpretation of lung function tests with regard to incipient interstitial lung diseaseSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Interpretation of plain X-rays in infants and childrenFracture
Interpretation of plain x-rays of the hands and fingersHand injury
Interpretation of positive group A streptococcus swab in high risk and symptomatic individualSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Interpretation of relevant laboratory data (blood glucose, urine microscopy, blood parameters for chronic disease, thyroid function)Child with disorder of elimination
Interpretation of usual midstream urine results in important renal diseases: urinary tract infection, renal calculi, glomerulonephritis, renal traumaFlank pain and dysuria
Interviewing adolescents by themselves and communicating with adolescent and caregivers togetherAcute severe testicular pain
Investigate appropriately with referral for patch testing. Consider other differential diagnosesAdult eczema
Investigate bleeding in a postnatal woman: full blood count, swabs, ultrasoundPostpartum care
Investigate fatigue in a postnatal woman: full blood count, thyroid function testsPostpartum care
Investigation (including overnight oximetry) and management of patient with sleep disordered breathingDaytime sleepiness
Investigation (including staging) of lung cancerHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Investigation and management of aspiration pneumonia and lung abcessHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Investigation and management of tuberculosisHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Investigation and treatment of a baby with neonatal hypoglycaemiaDiabetes in pregnancy
Investigation of STI and urinary tract infectionDysuria
Investigations available to confirm the diagnosis of a chromosomal abnormality in the postnatal periodFetal health
Investigations required for acute gastrointestinal illness and their interpretationDiarrhoea
Know how phototherapy works and when to use itInfant with jaundice
Know how to examine the ear and tympanic membraneCongenital hearing loss
Know how to refer child to specialist services if the child appears to have problems that need further investigationBefore school check
Know the indications for performing audiologic testing and what tests are appropriate/possible at different ages (audiograms, otoacoustic emissions, automated brainstem responses)Congenital hearing loss
Know what an adrenaline autoinjector (“Epipen”) is and how to administerFood allergy in paediatrics
Knowledge about the steps required to collect blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples in a sterile fashion; securing intravenous access in neonate; umbilical vessel anatomy and accessUnwell neonate
Knowledge and causes of iatrogenic menopause and premature ovarian failureMenopause
Knowledge of common causes of developmental delayBefore school check
Knowledge of common pervasive developmental disorders such as autism and how these are assessed such as presenting features of autistic spectrum disorder in young childrenBefore school check
Knowledge of indications and procedures for joint aspirationChild with sore joints
Knowledge of normal ages of acquisition of bowel and bladder controlChild with disorder of elimination
Knowledge of specific urogynaecological investigations such as cystometry, urodynamics, post void residualUrinary incontinence in women
Knowledge of the more common causes of skin/bone/joint lumpsMusculoskeletal lump
Knowledge of treatment options for causes of stridorNeonatal stridor
Knowledge of treatments of congenital infection (toxoplasmosis, CMV, HIV)Unwell neonate
Knowledge of types of sexual dysfunctionInfertility
Knowledge of where to place peripheral and central lines in a childInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Late presentations of cervical cancer including symptom control and palliative careAbnormal cervical smear result
Liaise closely with nursing staff and family/whānau members; describe expected response to treatment and follow-up arrangementsRest home resident with itching and rash
Liaise with colleagues in other disciplines so that multi-disciplinary input can be implemented which is consistent for both clinicians (e.g. Emergency Department, Medical, Psychiatry) and patientsMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Liaison with school teachers/education systemDisruptive behaviour disorder
List causes of chronic kidney diseaseChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
List the causes of overt and hidden bleeding late in pregnancyVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
List the common causes and know the distinguishing features of infant abdominal and scrotal massesAbdominal or inguinal lump
List the common causes of jaundice in the newborn, infancy and older childhoodInfant with jaundice
List the common features of a patient presenting with a new diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitusAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
List the different types and locations of herniasGroin lump
List the local and systemic causes of urinary incontinenceUrinary incontinence in women
List the possible abnormal endometrial biopsy results and know their risk and timeframe of progression to malignancyHeavy menstrual periods
Long-term visual prognosis and rehabilitation following congenital cataract surgery; resources for children with visual impairmentInfant with an altered light reflex
Longer term surgical rehabilitation - lids, conjunctiva, cornea; management of cosmetic problems from scarringAcute trauma to the eye
Longterm management of epilepsy; indication for initiating medical therapy; role of therapeutic drug monitoring; titration of anticonvulsant drugsEpilepsy / seizure
Maintain an ongoing relationship with the patient, whatever the outcomeRectal bleeding
Major and minor criteria for diagnosis of rheumatic fever (Jones criteria)Child with sore joints
Major characteristics of Down syndromeFetal health
Make a rapid assessment as to presence or absence of airway compromiseFacial swelling and itchy rash
Manage poisoning (e.g. paracetamol) overdose including first aid, blood and urine toxicology assessment, interpretation of levels, identify relevant end organs that may be affected, use of antidotes (use of paracetamol nomogram and N-acetylcysteine)Overdose in a child or adolescent
Manage clot retentionGross haematuria
Manage psychological disease in the puerperiumPostpartum care
Management and complications of an undescended testisGroin lump
Management and complications of reduced GCSUnexplained loss of consciousness
Management in the perioperative period of thromboembolic disease, anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents, fluid and electrolyte balance, glucose control, antibiotics, decolonisation of resistant organismsPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Management of "strep throat" in high risk and low risk populationsSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Management of otitis media, otitis externa (including necrotising otitis externa), tympanic membrane rupture, presbyucsis, cerumen accumulation, foreign body in external auditory canalHearing loss
Management of acute respiratory illness due to infectionChild with respiratory distress
Management of menorrhagia: medical (hormonal and non-hormonal) and surgical optionsHeavy menstrual periods
Management of congenital glaucoma: recognition of globe enlargement (buphthalmos), corneal haze, photophobia, recognising need for urgent referralWatery eye in an infant
Management of congenital tear duct obstruction: indications for surgical intervention, advice to family/whānau on supportive treatmentWatery eye in an infant
Management of fluid status, preoperative assessment of childAcute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Management of fluid resuscitationInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Management of rheumatic fever: acute management (bedrest/mobilisation/discharge), long-term antibiotic prophylaxis, family educationChild with sore joints
Management of constipation: dietary, fluids, medications, behavioural (toileting programme, star chart, diary)Child with disorder of elimination
Management of depression in older people: pharmacological and psychosocial approaches, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)Major depressive episode
Management of anxiety disorders including pharmacological, psychological and other non-biological methodsAnxiety disorder
Management of dementia; role of memory clinicsDelirium / dementia
Management of dementia and deliriumDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Management of medically unexplained physical symptoms: pharmacological, psychological, psycho-educational and psychosocialMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Management of alcohol withdrawal, spontaneous bacterial peritonitisAlcohol
Management of schizophrenia: pharmacological, psychological, psycho-educational and psychosocialAcute psychosis
Management of anterior, posterior and inferior dislocation of the shoulderDislocated joint
Management of osteoarthritisKnee pain
Management of head trauma; surgery, neuroprotective regimens, conservativeHead trauma
Management of urinary tract infection, gonorrhea, chlamydia, bacterial vaginosis, syphilisDysuria
Management of benign prostatic hyperplasiaElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Management of haemophilia, von Willebrand disease, ITPInfant or child with easy bruising
Management of myeloproliferative neoplasmsPolycythaemia
Management of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolus and haemorrhage while anticoagulatedDeep vein thrombosis
Management of pulmonary embolus (acute and longer term) and pneumothoraxSudden onset shortness of breath
Management of hyponatraemiaHyponatraemia
Management of high risk pregnancy based on the risk assessment and knowledge of complications that may arise as a result of the risks identified, both maternal and fetal: pharmacological (e.g. low dose aspirin, calcium, methyldopa) and non-pharmacological (lifestyle, diet and exercise,optimal gestational weight gain)Risk assessment in early pregnancy
Management of atrial fibrillation: rate vs rhythm control, use of anticoagulation; preparation required for elective cardioversionArrhythmias
Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, including starting oral agents and changing to insulinType 2 diabetes mellitus
Management of cardiovascular risk factors post-acute coronary syndrome: pharmacological (including side-effects) and non-pharmacologicalAcute chest pain
Management of colorectal cancer: surgical, oncological and palliative approachesBowel obstruction
Management of visual field defectsPanhypopituitarism
Management of status epilepticus and/or fitting childAltered level of consciousness in a child
Management of H. pylori infection, peptic ulcer disease, dyspepsia, chronic abdominal pain, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemiaChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Management of a cerebrovascular accident including the use of thrombolysis, warfarin/dabigatran toxicityUnexplained loss of consciousness
Management of a multi-trauma patientNeck injury
Management of a needlestick injury, including surveillanceNeedlestick injury
Management of acute asthma including respiratory arrestSudden onset shortness of breath
Management of acute testicular torsion and most common causes of epididymo-orchitisAcute severe testicular pain
Management of acute and chronic heart failure: medical,non-medical, electrophysiological/surgical intervention, palliativeHeart failure
Management of acute angle closure glaucoma (mid-dilated pupil)Pupil abnormality
Management of acute coronary syndrome (STEMI, NSTEMI and unstable angina)Acute chest pain
Management of acute exacerbation of chronic airways disease including evidence and indications for non-invasive ventilationChronic shortness of breath
Management of acute haemorrhage: classify its severity, noting that increase in pulse rate is an early and hypotension a late sign, especially in young patientsGynaecological abdominal pain
Management of acute hepatitisNeedlestick injury
Management of acute intoxication or overdose (general and specific treatments); management of withdrawal, including delirium tremensAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Management of acutely ischaemic limb, peripheral vascular disease, compartment syndrome and deep vein thrombosisAcutely painful limb
Management of Addisonian crisisAdrenal crisis
Management of ADHDDisruptive behaviour disorder
Management of adrenal insufficiencyAdrenal crisis
Management of amblyopia (patching or atropine); consider effect on school performance of visual disability/hospital attendanceInfant with an altered light reflex
Management of an ovarian cyst accident and pelvic inflammatory diseaseGynaecological abdominal pain
Management of anaphylaxis, epiglottitis, angioedema and foreign body obstructing an airwayCompromised airway
Management of anaphylaxis, tonsillitisUpper airway disease
Management of anaphylaxis, use of adrenalineFood allergy in paediatrics
Management of anaphylaxis/laryngeal odemaSudden onset shortness of breath
Management of babies born preterm: ventilation, surfactant, thermoregulation, nutrition, common problemsLate pregnancy complications
Management of bowel obstruction: conservative, endoscopic and surgical, including assessment and management of perioperative anaesthetic risksBowel obstruction
Management of cellulitis, boils and tineaSkin and soft tissue infection
Management of central and nephrogenic diabetes insipidusDiabetes insipidus
Management of chronic asthma; pharmacological, non-pharmacological; patient educationSudden onset shortness of breath
Management of chronic airflow obstruction; pharmacological and non-pharmacologicalChronic shortness of breath
Management of coeliac disease, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease (including the use of biological therapy)Chronic bowel motility problems
Management of common headache presentations and migrainesHeadache
Management of common early and late stroke complicationsStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Management of common side effects of each contraceptiveContraception
Management of complications such as epilepsy, muscle spasms, orthopaedic, nutritional status, respiratory and dentalChronic illness in paediatrics
Management of complications: especially electrolyte disturbanceEating disorders
Management of compromised airway; indications (and contraindications) for intubationUpper airway disease
Management of cranial nerve III palsy with pupil involvementPupil abnormality
Management of deliberate self harm/suicidal behaviour in children and adolescentsOverdose in a child or adolescent
Management of dependence: pharmacological, psychological, and other non-biological methodsAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Management of diabetes in pregnancy and targets for glycaemic control (diet, exercise, optimal gestational weight gain, medications, insulin regimens)Diabetes in pregnancy
Management of diabetic retinopathy; actions required to decrease the risk of blindnessAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Management of diabetic ketoacidosis; prescribe intravenous insulin regimen and intravenous fluid and electrolyte (potassium) replacementAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Management of diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, diabetic ulcers and nephropathy. Outline when a referral to a specialist is requiredType 2 diabetes mellitus
Management of diplopia - treatment options for diplopia in acute phase, role for strabismus surgery, role for prismatic correction of diplopia, management of underlying medical conditionsDiplopia
Management of diseases that commonly cause vertigoDizziness and vertigo
Management of disorientation in a medical or surgical patient: general and specific, pharmacological and non-pharmacologicalDelirium / dementia
Management of eating disorder: pharmacological and non-pharmacologicalEating disorders
Management of endometrial hyperplasia (medical and surgical)Heavy menstrual periods
Management of epilepsy during pregnancy and peripartum periodEpilepsy / seizure
Management of essential hypertensionSecondary hypertension
Management of fall and of abuse/neglect including documentation of injuries for medico-legal reasonsFalls and collapses
Management of febrile child, periorbital and orbital cellulitis, orbital abscess, septicaemiaChild with red swelling around one eye
Management of fetal abnormalities for mother and baby; during pregnancy, labour and delivery, neonatal period and long-termFetal health
Management of fistulae, fissures, perianal abscess, anal prolapse, haemorrhoids, faecal incontinence, ano-genital wartsPerianal pathology
Management of gastroenteritisInfectious disease outbreak
Management of groin massGroin lump
Management of haemochromatosisHaemochromatosis
Management of haemorrhoids, anal fissure, diverticulitisRectal bleeding
Management of hearing lossCongenital hearing loss
Management of Horner's syndromePupil abnormality
Management of human bite woundsHand injury
Management of hypercalcaemia; outline the management of myelomaHypercalcaemia and back pain
Management of hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndromeAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Management of hypertensive crisisSudden onset severe headache
Management of hyperthyroidism: medical, radio-active iodine and surgeryHyperthyroidism
Management of hypoglycaemia, status epilepticus, raised intracranial pressureUnexplained loss of consciousness
Management of hyponatraemia in an older patientDelirium / dementia
Management of hypothyroidismHypothyroidism
Management of hypovolaemic shock including anticoagulation reversalEpistaxis
Management of infectious mononucleosisFever and adenopathy
Management of infective conjunctivitis: risks of transmission, role of antibioticsWatery eye in an infant
Management of inflammatory bowel disease and its complicationsPerianal pathology
Management of insomnia: pharmacological and psychosocial methods, notably sleep hygieneMajor depressive episode
Management of intermittent claudication: non-medical, medical, surgical and interventionalChronic limb pain
Management of intoxication in the Emergency Department; de-escalation skills and restraintSelf-harm
Management of intra-abdominal malignancies: surgical, oncological and palliative approachesAdult with abdominal mass
Management of juvenile arthritis: principles of immobilisation, splinting, passive and active movement; roles of physiotherapist, ophthalmologistChild with sore joints
Management of long-term catheters in the communityElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Management of malaria and other infections commonly encountered by travellersFebrile returning traveller
Management of mania and bipolar affective disorder: pharmacological, psychological, and other non-biological methodsBipolar affective disorder
Management of microcytic and macrocytic anaemias; indications for transfusion of blood productsAnaemia
Management of migraine (including preventive strategies) and benign headache (pharmacological and non-pharmacological); consider contraceptive needs of reproductive age woman with migraine and auraSudden onset severe headache
Management of musculoskeletal injury in outpatient setting and indications for orthopaedic referralFracture
Management of needlestick injuryFebrile returning traveller
Management of non-specific back pain; role of the pain service and surgeryNon-specific back pain
Management of non-valvular structural heart diseaseValvular heart disease
Management of normal labour and deliveryLabour
Management of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, PCOS including life-style factors and role of the dietitianObesity
Management of obstructive and non-obstructive jaundice, acute liver failure, gallstone diseasePatient with jaundice
Management of ocular surface discomfort, ocular surface dryness and poor visual acuityAcute trauma to the eye
Management of open fracturesHand injury
Management of oppositional behaviourDisruptive behaviour disorder
Management of pain and management of common medical, surgical and gynaecological causes of abdominal painAcute abdominal pain
Management of pain in a young childFracture
Management of pain with no obvious organic cause and the rationale for, and mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs in fibromyalgiaPainful hands in the cold
Management of pain: pharmacological and non-pharmacological methodsMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Management of panhypopituitarism and the order in which hormone replacement should be startedPanhypopituitarism
Management of patient on warfarin with international normalised ratio (INR) greater than therapeutic rangeDeep vein thrombosis
Management of personality disorder: pharmacological, psychological, and other non-biological methodsPersonality disorder
Management of postoperative problems including thromboembolic disease, haemorrhage, urinary retention, oligouria/anuria, pain, delirium, hypo- and hypertension, electrolyte abnormalities, reduced Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), ischaemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmiasPostoperative care
Management of pre-existing and gestational hypertension in pregnancyRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Management of pulseless ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillationArrhythmias
Management of reversible causes of cardiac arrest; treatment of hyperkalaemiaOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Management of reversible liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseaseChronic liver disease
Management of secondary insomnia including behavioural (sleep-hygiene) and pharmacological interventionsAnxiety disorder
Management of septic shock, complications following abdominal surgery and perioperative nutritionPostoperative complications
Management of severe hypotensionUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Management of severe hypotension, pneumothorax, cardiac tamponadePenetrating chest trauma
Management of stable anginaStable angina
Management of stroke and systemic sclerosisDysphagia
Management of superficial injury including animal/human bites, obtaining consentSuperficial injuries
Management of the challenging patient: pharmacological and non-pharmacologicalAgitated and combative patient
Management of the patient on long-term adrenal replacement therapyPanhypopituitarism
Management of the patient with recurrent boilsSkin and soft tissue infection
Management of third stageLabour
Management of thyroid eye diseaseHyperthyroidism
Management of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding: acute and chronicUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Management of upper respiratory tract infections and atopyUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Management of urinary incontinence: conservative, bladder retraining, medical, use of adjuncts (pessary, hormone therapy, continence aids), surgeryUrinary incontinence in women
Management of urinary tract infections in infants including investigation with further imagingFebrile infant
Management of valvular heart disease and indications for surgeryValvular heart disease
Management of varicose veins and ulcersChronic limb pain
Management options for high grade cervical abnormalities; complications of treatmentAbnormal cervical smear result
Management strategies for type 1 diabetes mellitus, including indications and training for use of an insulin pumpType 1 diabetes mellitus
Management, in the postoperative setting, of fluid resuscitation, early sepsis, thromboembolic disease, acute coronary syndrome, wound infection, ileus, cardiac arrhythmias, acute alcohol withdrawalPostoperative complications
Managing chronic disease - patient education, support, pharmaceutical management, involving the multidisciplinary team including palliative careChronic sputum production
Managing co-existing disorders such as mental illness that may occur independently of drug and alcohol abusePersonality disorder
Maternal and fetal consequences of diabetes for: current pregnancy, labour and delivery, neonatal period, child long-term, mother long-term, future pregnanciesDiabetes in pregnancy
Maternal and fetal prognosis after pre-eclampsiaLate pregnancy complications
Measure visual acuity for distance and near, and record accuratelyGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Measure and document distance and near vision, plus visual fields to confrontationAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Measure and record visual acuityAcute trauma to the eye
Measure height and weight to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI)Headache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Measure height, weight and head circumference, calculate height velocity, body mass index (BMI), midparental height, mean predicted final adult heightChild with abnormal puberty
Measure height, weight and head circumference, calculation of body mass index (BMI) and height velocityOsteomyelitis
Measure visual acuity and record accuratelyAcute or chronic red eye
Measurement and calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), estimated GFR; classification system of severity used in chronic kidney diseaseChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Measurement and interpretation of blood glucose, electrolytes and blood gasAltered level of consciousness in a child
Medical and non-medical approaches to smoking cessationType 2 diabetes mellitus
Medical and non-medical approaches to obesity, including role of bariatric surgeryType 2 diabetes mellitus
Medical and surgical management of a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancyGynaecological abdominal pain
Medication errors; management of polypharmacyAccidental overdose
Methods for preventing further dislocationDislocated joint
Microbiological tests for laboratory evaluation of spondyloarthritis.pdf' target='_blank' title='Click to go to: Rheumatology'>spondyloarthritis.pdf' target='_blank' title='Click to go to: Rheumatology'>spondyloarthritis.pdf' target='_blank' title='Click to go to: Rheumatology'>reactive arthritis including stool cultures, urine samples and urethral swabsReactive arthritis
Monitoring patients with Barrett's oesophagus for development of cancerDysphagia
Morphological classification and differential diagnosis of anaemiaAnaemia
Motivational interviewing techniquesAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Multidisciplinary approach in a patient with inflammatory arthritisSwollen and tender joints
Multidisciplinary approach to ulcersChronic limb pain
Multidisciplinary care; role of other health professionals in investigation and management of lung cancer and tuberculosisHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: severity and indications for hospital admission, initial therapeutic options, consider other diagnosesPregnancy diagnosis
Need for and interpretation of radiology (plain abdominal films, indications for ultrasound, cystourethrogram)Child with disorder of elimination
Neonatal care of term babyLabour
Neurological examination of a patient with reduced level of consciousness; calculate Glasgow Coma ScoreAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Non pharmacologic management of the crying baby/colicIrritable infant
Non-gastrointestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseaseChronic bowel motility problems
Non-pharmacological elements to treatment and prevention of deliriumHyponatraemia
Non-pharmacological treatments for vertigoDizziness and vertigo
Normal child growth and development including milestonesChild with abnormal gait
Normal newborn behaviour; recognition of overdiagnosis of gastrooesophageal reflux and allergic disease that is 'medicalising normal infant crying'6 week check
Observe the administering of parental questionnaires to identify developmental and behavioural problemsBefore school check
Obtain antenatal history (maternal infective diseases)Unwell neonate
Obtain a patients medication list from different sources (e.g. pharmacy, GP) and review prescribed medicinesAccidental overdose
Obtain a relevant history from the parentsInfant or child with a murmur
Obtain a thorough feeding history for a child including when foods introduced (cereals, cows' milk)Failure to thrive
Obtain adequate history regarding duration and severity of airway symptoms (including effect on feeding, exacerbating factors, apnoeas, cyanotic episodes, reflux/vomiting, voice quality, vaccination status)Neonatal stridor
Obtain an adequate history for potential risk factors/causes of hearing loss (including family history of hearing loss)Congenital hearing loss
Obtain an anaesthetic history from a patient awaiting an operationPreoperative assessment and management
Obtain an appropriate history; consider duration, history of prematurity, birth weight, ocular injury, evidence of maternal infection, other systemic conditions, family history of eye problem/operationsInfant with an altered light reflex
Obtain history from patient with excess daytime sleepiness including a history from their partnerDaytime sleepiness
Obtain, document and interpret assessment of child with hearing loss including developmental assessmentCongenital hearing loss
Obtaining consent when the patient is unconsciousPenetrating chest trauma
Opportunity to offer cervical smear if duePostpartum care
Optimising maternal health pre-pregnancyRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Options for pain relief in labour and indications for epiduralLabour
Oral ulceration: recognition and management of aphthous ulcers, traumatic ulcers, ulcers caused by infection, and mucositis secondary to chemotherapyPancytopenia
Organs involved in the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromesNeck lump
Other features of metabolic syndromeDaytime sleepiness
Other neonatal investigations required to identify co-morbidities (e.g. Down syndrome: assess for cardiac, blood, thyroid, hearing abnormalities)Fetal health
Other ophthalmological presentations of giant cell arteritisSudden loss of vision and headache
Other symptoms associated with giant cell arteritisSudden loss of vision and headache
Outcome of babies born pretermLate pregnancy complications
Outline appropriate investigations including the importance of skin biopsy and immunofluorescence for accurate diagnosisBlisters
Outline interpretation of basic genetic laboratory studiesFamily with a genetic disorder
Outline management for laryngeal and other upper airway malignancy, inhalation injuryUpper airway disease
Outline management issues for a couple with a family history of a haemoglobinopathy or thalassaemia, who are planning a pregnancyAnaemia
Outline management of otitis media with effusionGlue ear
Outline management of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer: surgery (including ileal conduit formation), oncology, palliative careGross haematuria
Outline management of acoustic neuroma, Meniere’s disease, cholesteatomaHearing loss
Outline management of cervical cancer, including indications for surgeryAbnormal cervical smear result
Outline management of colorectal adenocarcinoma, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitisRectal bleeding
Outline management of malignant hypertensionSecondary hypertension
Outline management of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), nerve blocks and nauseaPostoperative care
Outline management of perioperative checklist (eg. marking surgical site, consent form), high-risk surgical patientPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Outline non-pharmacological treatment for headachesHeadache
Outline staging systems for lymphoproliferative disordersLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Outline the dietary control advice in gastro-oesophageal reflux diseaseChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Outline the management of subarachnoid haemorrhage: conservative, medical, interventional radiology, neurosurgerySudden onset severe headache
Outline the management of septic arthritis including discussion with operating teamKnee pain
Outline the management of testicular cancer: staging, role of chemotherapy, tumour markers, prognosisAcute severe testicular pain
Outline the management of prostate cancer: active surveillance, radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, hormonal and chemotherapy, palliativeElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Outline the management of lymphomaNeck lump
Outline the management of acute leukaemias and myelomaPancytopenia
Outline the management of acutely raised intracranial pressureSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Outline the management of an infertile coupleInfertility
Outline the management of anterior epistaxis and posterior epistaxisEpistaxis
Outline the management of bone and joint infectionsOsteomyelitis
Outline the management of bronchiectasis: physiotherapy, pharmacological and surgicalChronic sputum production
Outline the management of certain types of epilepsy with neurosurgeryEpilepsy / seizure
Outline the management of congenital cataractInfant with an altered light reflex
Outline the management of Cushing's syndromeObesity
Outline the management of cystic fibrosis including pathophysiologic rationaleChronic sputum production
Outline the management of lung cancer; indications and contraindications for treatment options in lung cancerHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Outline the management of myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosisNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Outline the management of myocarditis, pericarditis and aortic dissectionAcute chest pain
Outline the management of obesity-related sleep disordersObesity
Outline the management of oesophageal cancer: surgery (including anaesthetic risks), radiation, oncology; role of palliative careDysphagia
Outline the management of pancreatic cancer: surgery, oncology, palliativePatient with jaundice
Outline the management of parapneumonic effusion/empyemaPneumonia
Outline the management of spinal stenosis and peripheral neuropathyChronic limb pain
Outline the management of thyroid cancerNeck lump
Outline the management options for a mother with an abnormal diagnostic testFetal health
Outline the potential complications and management of patients following prostatic surgeryElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Outline the staging and management of endometrial and cervical cancerHeavy menstrual periods
Outline the surgical treatment options for advanced Parkinson's disease and dyskinesiasTremor and parkinsonism
Palliative care in neurodegenerative disordersNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Patient education - appropriate recommendations including advice regarding risks and appropriate protection against eye injuryAcute trauma to the eye
Patient education in photo-protection, discuss avoidance of sun exposure particularly at times of high UV radiation, use of physical barriers, use and choice of sunscreenSkin tumours
Patient education: appropriate recommendations, advice regarding risks and appropriate referral for significant vision loss, patient self-monitoring, appropriate use of dietary supplements, cessation of smoking, treatment optionsGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Perform urethral catherisation, arterial blood gas, blood pressure measurement, peripheral cannulation, ECG, nasogastric tube placementPostoperative care
Perform urinary catheterisationAcute kidney injury, Adult with abdominal mass
Perform a functional assessment (e.g. activities of daily living independence)Major depressive episode
Perform a nasogastric tube insertionBowel obstruction, Dysphagia
Perform a respiratory examination in a child (including assessing work of breathing (check oxygen saturations, examine for use of accessory muscles, tracheal tug, subcostal recession, pectus excavatum, cutaneous haemangiomas - head, neck and chest must be fully exposed)Neonatal stridor
Perform a mental state examination of a patient with substance abuse; when patient is sober, perform assessment of cognitive impairment in relation to memory and frontal lobe functionAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Perform a mental state examination of a patient with a personality disorderPersonality disorder
Perform a risk assessment for harm to self or others; assess suicide and neglect riskAcute psychosis, Bipolar affective disorder, Personality disorder, Alcohol and drug dependence disorders
Perform a mental state examination of an older patient with depression; recognise psychomotor variations of depression (i.e. psychomotor retardation and agitation)Major depressive episode
Perform a developmentally appropriate mental state examination on an 8 year old child with challenging behaviourDisruptive behaviour disorder
Perform a joint examination and a relevant examination of extra-articular manifestations of spondyloarthritis.pdf' target='_blank' title='Click to go to: Rheumatology'>spondyloarthritis.pdf' target='_blank' title='Click to go to: Rheumatology'>spondyloarthritis.pdf' target='_blank' title='Click to go to: Rheumatology'>reactive arthritisReactive arthritis
Perform a Gait-Arms-Legs-Spine (GALS) screenInflammatory low back pain
Perform a swinging flashlight test; test visual fields to confrontation; use direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy to assess the fundusSudden loss of vision and headache
Perform a capillary blood glucose measurement and urine dipstickType 1 diabetes mellitus
Perform a cervical spine examination and focused neurological examinationNeck injury
Perform a cognitive function assessment including a screening dementia test such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) or Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-III (ACE-III)Dementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Perform a cranial nerve examination (including fundoscopy) and a peripheral nervous system examinationSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Perform a focused abdominal examination; seek evidence of any conditions that may present with renal calculus diseaseFlank pain and dysuria
Perform a focused examination of visual behaviour in a child, visual acuity, eye movements, cover test, cover uncover test, and red reflex, particularly focusing on the signs of direction of strabismus, preferential fixation, correction with glasses, epicanthal foldsInfant with strabismus
Perform a focused examination relating to lower urinary tract and prostatic symptomsElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Perform a focused examination relevant to renal impairmentChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Perform a focused genitourinary examinationGross haematuria
Perform a focused neurological examinationHeadache
Perform a focused neurological examination to localise the lesion within the nervous system and identify characteristic featuresNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Perform a focused ophthalmic examination including measurement of visual acuity, pupil reactions, colour vision, visual field testing to confrontation, slit lamp examination and ophthalmoscopy examination of the optic nerve and retinaSudden painless loss of vision
Perform a full multisystem physical examinationSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Perform a full systems examinationPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Perform a general examination, as complete as is possible; recognise drug withdrawal and intoxicationAgitated and combative patient
Perform a general examination; recognise generalised lymphadenopathyNeedlestick injury
Perform a general examination; recognise the signs of cortisol excess and of androgen excessObesity
Perform a HEADSS assessment in adolescent/older childChild or adolescent with a headache
Perform a mental state examination of a patient with bipolar affective disorder; recognise the typical findings in a patient with maniaBipolar affective disorder
Perform a mental state examination of a patient with acute psychosis; recognise different types of delusions and hallucinations; identify and describe thought disorderAcute psychosis
Perform a mental state examination of a patient with an anxiety disorderAnxiety disorder
Perform a physical examination of a child including assessing normal major developmental milestones, assessment for dysmorphsim, neurocutaneous stigmata, assessing hearing and visionBefore school check
Perform a primary survey and the necessary practical skills: airway opening manoeuvres; cervical collar placement; obtaining vascular access, haemostasis and suturingAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Perform a primary survey in a trauma patientPenetrating chest trauma
Perform a rapid and targeted examination of a patient with sudden onset shortness of breath; recognise respiratory distress and a pneumothoraxSudden onset shortness of breath
Perform a relevant cardiac and neurologic examination, including measurement of blood pressure, assessment for murmurs and carotid bruitsSudden painless loss of vision
Perform a risk assessment for harm to self or others; assess suicide and neglect risk; identification and analysis of risk and protective factors for suicide and self-harmMajor depressive episode
Perform a risk assessment for harm to self or others; assess suicide and neglect risk; consider static and dynamic risk factorsSelf-harm
Perform a secondary surveyPenetrating chest trauma
Perform a secondary survey according to trauma assessment protocolsAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Perform a venepuncture, blood glucose level, venous cannulation, arterial blood gas, ECG, lumbar punctureUnexplained loss of consciousness
Perform a venepuncture, nasal swab, basic airway managementEpistaxis
Perform an abdominal and genital examination (including the cremasteric reflex)Acute severe testicular pain
Perform an assessment of airway, breathing and circulation, recognise signs of life, assess the level of consciousness using Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive (AVPU) Scale, neurological observations and fundoscopyHead trauma
Perform an assessment of airway, breathing and circulation; recognise signs of life; signs compatible with brainstem deathUnexplained loss of consciousness
Perform an assessment of the airway, breathing and circulation, cervical spine integrity, recognise signs of lifePenetrating chest trauma
Perform an assessment of the level of consciousness using Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive (AVPU) ScaleUnexplained loss of consciousness
Perform an assessment of the level of consciousness using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive (AVPU) ScalePenetrating chest trauma
Perform an ECG; identify atrial fibrillation and flutter, supraventricular tachycardia, left and right bundle branch block, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, first-, second type 1-, second type 2- and third-degree heart blocks, atrial and ventricular ectopyArrhythmias
Perform an examination (including mental state) of a patient who has self-harmed; recognise stigmata of self-harmSelf-harm
Perform an examination of a patient with a feverFever and a new murmur
Perform an examination of a patient with an eating disorder; recognise signs of self-purging and dermatological manifestations of anorexiaEating disorders
Perform an examination of a patient with feverFebrile returning traveller
Perform an examination of a the groin and scrotum; clinically differentiate a direct and indirect inguinal herniaGroin lump
Perform an examination of a wound and recognise complicationsSuperficial injuries
Perform an examination of cardiovascular and respiratory systems, upper airway and neck including a full preoperative airway assessmentPreoperative assessment and management
Perform an examination of the abdomenChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Perform an examination of the cranial nerves, neck and abdomenDysphagia
Perform an examination, including mental state examination, of someone with medically unexplained physical symptomsMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Perform an intramuscular injectionSuperficial injuries
Perform an ophthalmological examination, particularly focusing on optic nerve functionSudden loss of vision and headache
Perform and interpret spirometry and arterial blood gasChronic sputum production
Perform and interpret a septic screen (full blood count, blood culture, urine microscopy and culture, lumbar puncture, chest X-ray)Unwell neonate
Perform and interpret an ECGHeart failure, Stable angina
Perform and interpret an ECG and recognize ischaemic features (i.e. STEMI and NSTEMI)Acute chest pain
Perform and interpret Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF), spirometry and arterial blood gasChronic shortness of breath
Perform and interpret relevant investigations: PEF, arterial blood gas, bloods and chest X-raySudden onset shortness of breath
Perform and interpret the results of a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA)and Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-III (ACE-III)Delirium / dementia
Perform and record a mental state examination of a patient with an eating disorderEating disorders
Perform and record a Gait-Arms-Legs-Spine (GALS) screenSwollen and tender joints
Perform and record a breast and axillary examinationBreast lump and screening
Perform and record a focused examinationWatery eye in an infant
Perform and record a focused examination to localise the neurological lesion; identify possible source of emboliStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Perform and record an examination of a swollen limb; use dermatological terminology to describe skin changes and recognise neurovascular compromiseDeep vein thrombosis
Perform and record an examination of the abdomen and lymph nodes. Include checking for ascites, rectal, genital and speculum examinations if indicated. Recognise a distended bladderAdult with abdominal mass
Perform and record an examination of the abdomen and pelvis: include genitalia, hernial orifices and rectal examination. Recognise signs of peritonismAcute abdominal pain
Perform and record an examination of the abdomen including rectal examinationChronic bowel motility problems
Perform and record an examination of the abdomen, including genitalia, hernial orifices and rectal examination. Recognise peritonism, surgical scars and bowel obstructionBowel obstruction
Perform and record an examination of the abdomen, including rectal examination. Recognise melaena and signs of chronic liver diseaseUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Perform and report the examination of the respiratory systemWorsening shortness of breath
Perform arterial blood gas and intramuscular injectionCompromised airway
Perform arterial blood gas, venepuncture, central line and peripheral blood cultures, urinary catheter placement, peripheral intravenous cannulation, ECG, placement of nasogastric tubePostoperative complications
Perform ascitic tapChronic liver disease
Perform assessment of level of consciousness using Glasgow Coma Score (GCS)and Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive (AVPU) Scale, fundoscopy, lumbar punctureSudden onset severe headache
Perform assessment of scaphoid fracture and treatment/follow-up of scaphoid fracturesHand injury
Perform assessment of the level of consciousness using Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive (AVPU) ScaleFalls and collapses
Perform bag-valve-mask ventilation, airway manoeuvres, use airway adjuncts, prescribe insulin regimen for 'nil by mouth' patient, thromboembolic risk assessment, ECGPreoperative assessment and management
Perform basic airway managementUpper airway disease
Perform blood pressure measurement in a pregnant womanLate pregnancy complications
Perform Buerger testAcutely painful limb
Perform capillary blood glucose and urine dipstickType 2 diabetes mellitus
Perform capillary glucose level, measurement of blood pressure, lumbar punctureAgitated and combative patient
Perform capillary glucose measurementAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Perform cervical spine immobilisationNeck injury
Perform chest compressions, airway maneouvres and the use airway adjunctsOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Perform debridement and suturing of superficial lacerationsHand injury
Perform ECG, capillary blood glucose testFalls and collapses
Perform ECG, urine dipstick and pregnancy testAcute abdominal pain
Perform examination of abdomen, including rectal examinationRectal bleeding
Perform examination of abdomen, perineum and anus including rectal examinationPerianal pathology
Perform examination of cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological systems, abdomenPostoperative care
Perform examination the abdomen; examine for shifting dullness and recognise signs of chronic liver diseaseChronic liver disease
Perform focused examination of eye trauma paying particular attention to the lids, conjunctiva and cornea with judgement of severity of traumaAcute trauma to the eye
Perform focused examination of ocular redness paying particular attention to the distributionAcute or chronic red eye
Perform focused neurological examination including calculating Glasgow Coma Score (GCS)Altered level of consciousness in an adult
Perform full neurological and cardiovascular examinationsEpilepsy / seizure
Perform gross evaluation of intraocular pressure by palpationAcute or chronic red eye, Acute trauma to the eye
Perform injection and aspiration of a jointGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Perform measurement of blood pressureUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Perform measurement of blood pressure and an ECGValvular heart disease
Perform measurement of postural blood pressureFalls and collapses
Perform multisystem examination on the confused patient. Accurately examine the signs of fluid statusHyponatraemia
Perform musculoskeletal and neurological examination in infants and childrenChild with abnormal gait
Perform musculoskeletal examination in infants and childrenChild with sore joints
Perform neurovascular assessment of periphery and examination of the joints of the upper limbForearm / wrist injury
Perform otoscopyHearing loss
Perform pain assessmentPostoperative care
Perform Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF), spirometry and arterial blood gasSudden onset shortness of breath
Perform physical and mental state examination of a disorientated/confused patientDelirium / dementia
Perform venepuncture, arterial blood gasPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Perform venepuncture, ECGAccidental overdose
Perform venepuncture; importance of correct patient identification in collecting blood samplesAnaemia
Perform vital signs, blood cultures, skin swabBurns
Perform, document and interpret height and weight measurementBefore school check
Perform, with sensitivity, a digital rectal examinationElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Perioperative care of diabetic patientsPostoperative complications
Perioperative management of anticoagulationDeep vein thrombosis
Perioperative nutritional and metabolic needs of the patientPostoperative complications
Pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of pain, conversion of opioids between oral and parenteral formulations; use of opioids in renal impairmentHypercalcaemia and back pain
Pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmiasArrhythmias
Pharmacological and non-pharmacological preventions of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolismDeep vein thrombosis
Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies to prevent stone formationFlank pain and dysuria
Pharmacological management of cardiovascular risk factors: antihypertensives, antiplatelets, anticoagulants, lipid lowering agents, nicotine replacement therapyStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Pharmacological management of chronic kidney disease and its comorbiditiesChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Physical examination of the infant including weight (and evaluation of acute weight loss)Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Physiotherapy and exercise therapy in ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthropathiesInflammatory low back pain
Plot weight from birth on growth chartNeonatal stridor
Possible usefulness of clinical diagnostic signs and symptoms in low risk population to differentiate bacterial from viral cause of sore throatSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Post-natal contraceptionLabour
Post-operative analgesia, drug and administration optionsPostoperative complications
Pre-pregnancy folate and iodine supplementation, screening and vaccinationsInfertility
Pre-pregnancy medications e.g. folic acid and iodineGynaecological abdominal pain
Precautions needed when a base of skull fracture is presentHead trauma
Preparing a trauma patient for urgent surgery, appreciating risk of anaesthesia with a spinal injury and rapid sequence inductionNeck injury
Prepregnancy counselling specific to diabetesDiabetes in pregnancy
Prescribe oral rehydration therapy and determine when intravenous or nasogastric therapy is appropriateInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Prescribe drugs safely, effectively and economically; write legal prescription that takes into account the needs of individual patient; discuss prescribing options with patientGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Prescribe drugs safely, effectively and economically; write prescriptions that take into account the needs of individual patients; prescribe high risk medications (e.g. warfarin)Arrhythmias
Prescribe for patient with impaired renal functionChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Prescribing intravenous fluidsPostoperative complications
Prescribing for patients with impaired liver functionChronic liver disease
Prescribing for pregnant women and women of child-bearing potentialRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Prescribing the emergency contraceptive pillContraception
Prescribing to under 16 year olds and vulnerable women groups with reference to the principles of Gillick CompetencyContraception
Presentation and complications of vasculitis including polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritisHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Presentation/manifestations of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosisHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Presenting symptoms and signs of endometriosis, PCOS, hyperprolactinaemia and premature ovarian failureInfertility
Preventative strategies for avoiding future urinary incontinenceUrinary incontinence in women
Prevention of STI including herpes simplex virus infectionDysuria
Primary and secondary preventative measures in osteoporosis - lifestyle and pharmacological mechanisms of actionHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Primary and secondary preventative strategies for ischaemic heart diseaseStable angina
Primary and secondary surveys in trauma and importance of the trauma callNeck injury
Primary prevention and assessing cardiovascular risk including goals for blood pressure control in patients with diabetes mellitusType 2 diabetes mellitus
Prognosis and complications of meningitisFever and headache
Prognosis and complications of myeloproliferative neoplasms: thrombosis, progression to myelofibrosis and transformation to acute leukaemiaPolycythaemia
Prognosis and complications of operative delivery for mother and baby, short- and long-term; implications for future pregnanciesLabour
Prognosis and complications of pneumonia (in an older patient)Pneumonia
Prognosis for otitis media, tympanic membrane rupture, presbyucsis, Meniere’s disease, cholesteatoma, acoustic neuroma, meningioma, necrotising otitis externaHearing loss
Prognosis for colorectal adenocarcinoma, inflammatory bowel diseaseRectal bleeding
Prognosis for mother and baby with abnormal diagnostic testFetal health
Prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinomaEpistaxis
Prognosis of personality disordersPersonality disorder
Prognosis of delirium and dementiaDelirium / dementia
Prognosis of schizophreniaAcute psychosis
Prognosis of bipolar affective disorderBipolar affective disorder
Prognosis of asthma, pulmonary embolus and pneumothoraxSudden onset shortness of breath
Prognosis of heart failureHeart failure
Prognosis of a patient with a fractured neck of femurHip fracture
Prognosis of acute kidney injuryAcute kidney injury
Prognosis of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosisChronic sputum production
Prognosis of burnsBurns
Prognosis of chronic liver diseaseChronic liver disease
Prognosis of chronic obstructive airways diseaseChronic shortness of breath
Prognosis of common abdominal pathologiesAcute abdominal pain
Prognosis of depressionMajor depressive episode
Prognosis of different leukaemias and myelomaPancytopenia
Prognosis of diffuse lung diseaseWorsening shortness of breath
Prognosis of inflammatory bowel diseaseChronic bowel motility problems
Prognosis of intracranial bleedsSudden onset severe headache
Prognosis of lung cancerHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Prognosis of obstructive sleep apnoea and obesity hypoventilation syndromeDaytime sleepiness
Prognosis of pancreatic cancerPatient with jaundice
Prognosis of panhypopituitarismPanhypopituitarism
Prognosis of patients with medically unexplained physical symptomsMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Prognosis of periorbital infection: recovery from febrile illness, visual recoveryChild with red swelling around one eye
Prognosis of peripheral vascular diseaseChronic limb pain, Acutely painful limb
Prognosis of severe cerebral palsy with significant lung disease and mobility issuesChronic illness in paediatrics
Prognosis of shoulder dislocationDislocated joint
Prognosis of stable anginaStable angina
Prognosis of the various anxiety disordersAnxiety disorder
Prognosis of tuberculosisHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Prognosis of valvular heart diseaseValvular heart disease
Prognosis of witnessed and unwitnessed cardiac arrest, post-cardiac arrestOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Prognosis post-head traumaHead trauma
Prophylactic use of proton pump inhibitors to prevent oesophageal stricturePainful hands in the cold
Provide a differential diagnosis of a disorientated patientDelirium / dementia
Provide instructions for pre operative medication regimen and prescribe on in-patient prescription chartPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Provide lifestyle advice including alcohol cessationChronic liver disease
Provide the patient with verbal and written information about urticaria and angioedemaFacial swelling and itchy rash
Provide the patient with verbal and written information about chronic plaque psoriasis and the chosen treatmentRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Provide the patient with verbal and written information about the skin disorder diagnosedBlisters
Provide the rest home with written information about institutional scabies and its managementRest home resident with itching and rash
Provision of basic life support (oral airway, rescue breathing, cardiac compression) to a collapsed infant or childAltered level of consciousness in a child
Psychological and social impact of incontinencePerianal pathology
Psychological factors in chronic renal disease; awareness that this patient is high risk for developing depressionChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Questioning around systemic symptoms that may indicate a more sinister causeMusculoskeletal lump
Radiologic diagnosis of intussception, perforation and obstructionAcute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Radiological interpretation of hip pathologyOsteomyelitis
REBELS structure to deal with communication challenges (the 'angry patient')Hand injury
Recognise 'red flag' symptoms for gynaecological malignancyHeavy menstrual periods
Recognise shock (or impending shock) in infants and childrenInfant or child with pallor
Recognise rashes commonly associated with infectionFebrile infant
Recognise headaches that require urgent management (young age, associated meningism and/or focal neurology, associated vomiting, developmental regression, personality change)Child or adolescent with a headache
Recognise clinical features of the more common genetic disorders: e.g. Down syndromeFamily with a genetic disorder
Recognise depression and anxiety disordersChronic bowel motility problems
Recognise dermatophyte infectionSkin and soft tissue infection
Recognise a testicular lump suggestive of cancerAcute severe testicular pain
Recognise a tympanic membrane perforation; describe managementGlue ear
Recognise abnormal head posture; perform cover test, eye movement examination (ductions and versions)Diplopia
Recognise acute (those requiring immediate surgical management) and non-acute swellings of the scrotumAbdominal or inguinal lump
Recognise adverse factors that increase the risk of perioperative complicationsPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Recognise airway compromise, Pemberton's sign and a goitreNeck lump
Recognise and assess a critically unwell surgical patientPostoperative complications
Recognise and differentiate 'baby blues', postpartum depression and puerperial psychosisPostpartum care
Recognise and manage common skin and soft tissue infection (including ingrown toe nail) in primary healthcare settingSkin and soft tissue infection
Recognise and manage associated electrolyte abnormalities namely hyperkalaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia and understand the underlying pathophysiology i.e. renal failure and relationship to secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidismChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Recognise and manage Bartholin cystsGynaecological abdominal pain
Recognise and respect different expectations regarding management (e.g. if you think the patient doesn't need sutures)Superficial injuries
Recognise blood test results that suggest Addison's disease; interpret short Synacthen testAdrenal crisis
Recognise clinical phenotypes of common functioning pituitary tumours and panhypopituitarismPanhypopituitarism
Recognise clinical signs of anaemiaGross haematuria
Recognise distended bladder, shock, respiratory distress, delirium, ischaemic heart disease, cardiac arrthymiasPostoperative care
Recognise end organ damage and malignant hypertensionSecondary hypertension
Recognise features of the history and examination that alert the clinician to the need for investigation and interventionSkin tumours
Recognise high risk anaesthesia patients (signs of airway obstruction, difficult intubation, cardiovascular risk assessment/American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA))Preoperative assessment and management
Recognise importance of considering pregnancy in all reproductive age women with abdominal pain and get a pregnancy testGynaecological abdominal pain
Recognise importance of pre-conceptual counselling and interdisciplinary care in pregnancy for women with hypertensionSecondary hypertension
Recognise important features of history and clinical examination such as cardiac murmurs, dysmorphism, history of recurrent infections or steatorrhoeaFailure to thrive
Recognise infectious and non-infectious complications of medical devicesPostoperative complications
Recognise jaundice, signs of chronic liver disease and perform an examination of the abdomenPatient with jaundice
Recognise recurrent miscarriage and refer to specialistGynaecological abdominal pain
Recognise red flag symptoms and signs in relation to severe eye traumaAcute trauma to the eye
Recognise red flag symptoms and signs in relation to the red eyeAcute or chronic red eye
Recognise red flag symptoms of gastrointestinal tract tumours, ischaemic bowelRectal bleeding
Recognise risk factors for cardiac arrest, advance care directiveOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Recognise risk factors for infertility (female factor, male factor and couple factor)Infertility
Recognise risk factors for secondary causes of hypertension; recognise the Cushingoid patientSecondary hypertension
Recognise signs and symptoms suggestive of kernicterus (hypertonia, lethargy, high pitched cry, back arching)Infant with jaundice
Recognise signs of cerebellopontine angle tumour, conductive and sensorineural hearing lossHearing loss
Recognise signs of hypovolaemic shock and a compromised airwayEpistaxis
Recognise signs of orbital extension of infection from surrounding structures; classify the extent of involvementChild with red swelling around one eye
Recognise sinister symptoms that could indicate bone malignancyKnee pain
Recognise specific macronutrient and micronutrient deficiency statesEating disorders
Recognise specific macronutrient and micronutrient deficiency states; assess dietary status and history of medication/supplementsChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Recognise symptoms and signs of pre-eclampsia and its complications, especially eclampsia and HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndromeLate pregnancy complications
Recognise symptoms and signs of latent and active phases of labourLabour
Recognise symptoms and signs of preterm labourLate pregnancy complications
Recognise symptoms and signs relevant to normal development, that may concern caregiversFailure to thrive
Recognise that this is a medical emergencyAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Recognise the appearances of otitis media with effusionGlue ear
Recognise the biological symptoms of depression and identify the risk factors for depressionMajor depressive episode
Recognise the characteristic signs of testicular torsionAcute severe testicular pain
Recognise the characteristic symptoms of panic disorder (PD), agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Anxiety disorder
Recognise the child with an abnormal gait requiring urgent investigation and managementChild with abnormal gait
Recognise the common presenting features of a neurodegenerative conditionUrinary incontinence in women
Recognise the features of cauda equina syndrome and nerve root compressionNon-specific back pain
Recognise the features of compartment syndrome and outline its managementForearm / wrist injury
Recognise the importance of performing a full skin examination, particularly in a high-risk individual, to detect asymptomatic lesionsSkin tumours
Recognise the morphological types of anaemia: microcytic, macrocytic, and normocyticChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Recognise the need for medical stabilisation in a general hospital setting when critical vs. management as an outpatientEating disorders
Recognise the need to increase thyroid hormone supplementation in early pregnancyHypothyroidism
Recognise the signs and symptoms of vaccine preventable disease including but not limited to measles, mumps, pertussis and pneumococcal diseaseFebrile infant
Recognise the signs and symptoms of vaccine preventable disease including measles, pertussis and pneumococcal diseaseChild with respiratory distress
Recognise types of visual field defectsPanhypopituitarism
Recognise what is needed to perform a hearing, visual and oral health screenBefore school check
Recognise ‘B symptomsLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Recognise, assess and manage a compromised airway, including maneouvres, adjuncts and definitive airwaysCompromised airway
Recognition and management of sepsisChild with sore joints
Recognition and early management of septic shockFlank pain and dysuria
Recognition and examination for complications of obesityOsteomyelitis
Recognition and initial management of the septic infantInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Recognition and management of neutropenic sepsisPancytopenia
Recognition and management of anaphylaxisChild with generalised swelling
Recognition and management of hypoglycemia of the newbornUnwell neonate
Recognition and management of restless leg syndromeDaytime sleepiness
Recognition of stridor as medical emergencyNeonatal stridor
Recognition of a critically unwell patientFever and headache
Recognition of factors that contribute to hypoglycaemia: complication of aggressive glycaemic control, incorrect insulin dosing, not eating or excessive exercise, alcohol or drug consumptionType 1 diabetes mellitus
Recognition of important 'red flags' (poor growth or feeding, fever, lethargy)Irritable infant
Recognition of normal patterns and variations of puberty, and clinical features of premature and delayed pubertyChild with abnormal puberty
Recognition of petechiae and purpura and differential diagnosis; identify common causes of easy bruisingInfant or child with easy bruising
Recognition of signs of congenital infectionUnwell neonate
Recognition of the acutely unwell child; knowledge of vital signs (pulse rate, respiratory rate) of children of differing age groupsFebrile infant
Record the stage of pubertal development (Tanner stages)Amenorrhea
Referral to specialist for any child with anaphylaxis or allergy to more than one food allergenFood allergy in paediatrics
Rehabilitation post-amputation and role of the physiotherapist and occupational therapist; management of neuropathic painAcutely painful limb
Relevance of giant cell arteritis (temporal arteritis) to central retinal artery occlusionSudden painless loss of vision
Request appropriate investigations guided by the differential diagnosisHyponatraemia
Request appropriate thyroid function tests and interpret themHypothyroidism
Requirements for adequate oxygen delivery to meet metabolic needsInfant or child with a murmur
Resuscitation and management of meningococcaemiaInfant or child with easy bruising
Resuscitation of the newborn; complications of fetal acidaemia; lactation issues due to separation from motherLabour
Resuscitation, management of dehydration and sepsisFebrile infant
Review newborn record to obtain information about labour and delivery (note administration of antibiotics to mother in labour, duration of ruptured membranes, presence of maternal fever, use of vitamin K in the newborn)Unwell neonate
Risk factors and management of rhabdomyolysisUnexplained loss of consciousness
Risk factors for cervical abnormalityAbnormal cervical smear result
Risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia and malignancyHeavy menstrual periods
Risk factors for peptic ulcer disease, including alcohol historyChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Risk factors for thyroid cancer and lymphomaNeck lump
Risk groups for rheumatic fever, Jones criteria and red flags for diagnosis (ethnicity, migratory arthralgia, associated murmur)Osteomyelitis
Risks and complications related to transfusion of blood productsAnaemia
Risks of rapid tranquilisationDelirium / dementia
Risks related to the use of hormone therapyMenopause
Role and indications for bacterial and viral swabsItching child
Role of blood tests in the diagnosis (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein, platelets); role of temporal artery biopsySudden loss of vision and headache
Role of substance abuse, particularly alcoholBipolar affective disorder
Role of liaison psychiatry, social worker, nurseAgitated and combative patient
Role of anaesthetist, cardiologist, surgeon, transfusion medicine specialistPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Role of anaesthetist, pain team, surgeon, high dependency unit nursing and geriatricianPostoperative care
Role of audiologists and otorhinolaryngology (ORL) surgeonHearing loss
Role of bariatric surgery for treatment of obesityObesity
Role of cardiovascular rehabilitationAcute chest pain
Role of diabetic nurse and dietitianAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Role of dietitianEating disorders
Role of early intervention services and community agencies such as child development team, home care nurses, IHC New Zealand, Taikura trustChronic illness in paediatrics
Role of early intervention services, crisis care services and the community mental health teamAcute psychosis
Role of early intervention services, crisis care services and the community mental health teamsBipolar affective disorder
Role of hospital in the home and home intravenous therapyOsteomyelitis
Role of imaging with ultrasound, intravenous urogram and CT in diagnosis and stagingGross haematuria
Role of mindfulness meditation in irritable bowel syndromeChronic bowel motility problems
Role of multidisciplinary care in patients with dementia, including assessing patient safetyDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Role of multidisciplinary team in the care of the disorientated patient and discharge planningDelirium / dementia
Role of neuroimaging and other investigations (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein, blood glucose; orthoptic workup such as Hess ChartDiplopia
Role of neurosurgical and stroke teamSudden onset severe headache
Role of non-medical interventions such as lifestyle modification and exercise programmesStable angina
Role of nutrition in anaemia and awareness of your personal perception on patient's choice of dietAnaemia
Role of obstetric ultrasound in early pregnancyPregnancy diagnosis
Role of occupational and environmental physicians (and other associated health professionals)Worsening shortness of breath
Role of Occupational Health DepartmentNeedlestick injury
Role of other health professionals in investigation and management of sleep disordered breathingDaytime sleepiness
Role of periconceptual folic acid in preventing neural tube defectRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Role of physiotherapy, occupational and speech therapy in management of stroke patientsStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Role of physiotherapy, orthopaedic specialist and orthoticsKnee injury
Role of physiotherapy, rehabilitation and orthopaedic surgeryShoulder pain
Role of psychological support and cognitive therapy in the treatment of tinnitusDizziness and vertigo
Role of psychosocial assessmentChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychogenic non-epileptic seizuresEpilepsy / seizure
Role of radiological investigations and proceduresAcute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Role of radiology in diagnosis of bone/joint infection and other bone joint abnormalitiesChild with sore joints
Role of rehabilitation and respiteTremor and parkinsonism
Role of rehabilitation programmes and physiotherapy in neurodegenerative disordersNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Role of renal transplantationChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Role of respiratory nurse specialist, respiratory physiotherapist and other health professionalsChronic shortness of breath
Role of security in Emergency Department, role of consultation-liaison psychiatry, crisis care services and early intervention servicesSelf-harm
Role of security staff, levels of observation and de-escalation measuresAgitated and combative patient
Role of specific substances in psychosisAcute psychosis
Role of surgeon, anaesthetist and anaesthetic technicianPreoperative assessment and management
Role of surgeon, gastroenterologist, oncologist, palliative careRectal bleeding
Role of surgery in the management of endocarditisFever and a new murmur
Role of surgery, radiotherapy and palliative care in the management of cerebral tumourSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Role of surgical management of in diseases that commonly cause vertigoDizziness and vertigo
Role of the heart failure specialist nurse and palliative care servicesHeart failure
Role of the anaesthetist, intensivist, dietitianBurns
Role of the anaesthetist/intensivist , otorhinolaryngology (ORL) surgeons, respiratory physician in management of a compromised airwayUpper airway disease
Role of the anticoagulant clinic and pharmacistArrhythmias
Role of the cardiac arrest team, emergency medical services and pre-hospital careOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Role of the diabetic nurse specialist and dietitianType 2 diabetes mellitus
Role of the diabetic nurse specialist, dietitian, GP and diabetes specialistType 1 diabetes mellitus
Role of the emergency nurse practitioner, physiotherapistDislocated joint
Role of the geriatrician,geriatric psychiatrist, nurse, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, social worker, dietitian, Age Concern, including discharge planning with team and family/whānauFalls and collapses
Role of the GP in facilitating referralGenetic testing information, Breast lump and screening
Role of the GP in managing depressionMajor depressive episode
Role of the haematologist/transfusion medicine specialist in the treatment of massive haemorrhageUpper gastrointestinal bleeding, Penetrating chest trauma
Role of the inflammatory bowel disease/colorectal nurse specialist, dietitianPerianal pathology
Role of the multidisciplinary team in discharge planning; making appropriate living arrangements post operativelyHip fracture
Role of the neurosurgical and medical teamsHead trauma
Role of the otorhinolaryngology (ORL) surgeon and haematologistEpistaxis
Role of the pharmacist in dispensing and medication reconciliationAccidental overdose
Role of the pharmacy; polypharmacyFalls and collapses
Role of the surgical team and plastic surgeonSuperficial injuries
Role of the trauma team and multidisciplinary approach to the trauma patientAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Role of thrombosis service and pharmacist for patients on anticoagulantsDeep vein thrombosis
Roles of clinical geneticist, genetic counsellor, genetic scientist/pathologistFamily with a genetic disorder
Roles of liver disease specialist nurse, dietitian, alcohol cessation counsellorChronic liver disease
Roles of speech and language specialist, dietitianDysphagia
Roles of the inflammatory bowel disease nurse specialist, dietitian and psychologistChronic bowel motility problems
Routine counselling of all women in early pregnancy: potential teratogens, lifestyle advice, vitamin and mineral supplementation, antenatal education optionsPregnancy diagnosis
Routine early pregnancy investigations (full blood count, blood group and antibody screen, rubella/ syphilis/HIV/hepatitis B and C serology, cervical smear if appropriate, chlamydia nucleic acid amplification test [NAAT], urine dipstick and culture) and if indicated, varicella/cytomegalovirus serology, haemoglobin electrophoresisPregnancy diagnosis
Screen for other comorbid drug use such as over the counter medication, prescribed medication (hypnotics, analgesia), accessible drugs (aftershave, antiseptic hand gels, medicine cabinets on wards) and illicit drugsAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Screen for postnatal depression using the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression ScorePostpartum care
Screening and diagnostic tests for diabetes undertaken during pregnancy; interpret the resultsDiabetes in pregnancy
Select and interpret tests used to diagnose malaria (thin and thick blood films, malaria antigen tests); STIs (urethral and pharyngeal swabs and self-collected urine sample tested for gonorrhoea and chlamydia); blood cultures and faeces to culture Salmonella typhi, Campylobacter jejuniFebrile returning traveller
Sensitive history taking regarding use of alcoholUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Sensitivity and specificity of mammography and breast ultrasoundBreast lump and screening
Serological markers of systemic sclerosis and other connective tissue diseasePainful hands in the cold
Signs and symptoms suggesting toxicity such as cholinergic: (organophosphates) salivation, sweating, bronchospasm or anticholinergic: dry flushed skin, mydriasis, seizures, ECG changesOverdose in a child or adolescent
Situations where prophylactic antibiotics are required to prevent endocarditisFever and a new murmur
Stage renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer using the TNM system and outline the impact on treatment choices and prognosisGross haematuria
Stage prostate cancer using the TNM system, incorporating the Gleason scoreElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Stage colorectal cancer using Dukes criteria and TNM system; its impact on survival and treatmentBowel obstruction
Stage oesophageal cancer using the TNM systemDysphagia
Staging and prognosis of gynaecological malignanciesPostmenopausal bleeding
Staging of breast cancer using TNM and how this impacts on treatment and prognosis; role of sentinel node biopsyBreast lump and screening
Strategies to prevent post-thrombotic complicationsDeep vein thrombosis
Suggest appropriate antibiotic regimens for endocarditis; dual therapyFever and a new murmur
Surgical and medical methods of first trimester termination of pregnancy: relative risks and benefitsPregnancy diagnosis
Surgical approach to removing a pituitary mass and the complicationsPanhypopituitarism
Symptoms and signs of cervical cancer and importance of timely referral to gynaecological oncologyAbnormal cervical smear result
Symptoms and signs of gynaecological cancerPostmenopausal bleeding
Symptoms and signs of perimenopauseHeavy menstrual periods
Systematic examination of a patient with possible vasculitis including fundoscopy, blood pressure measurement, urinalysisHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Systematically describe a lumpGroin lump
Take a neonatal and antenatal historyInfant with jaundice
Take a skin scrape and nail clipping for mycological microscopy and cultureRest home resident with itching and rash
Take a family history and construct a pedigreeRectal bleeding
Take a family history of a genetic disorder and construct a pedigreeFamily with a genetic disorder
Take a history from the male partner and examine him, including testicular examinationInfertility
Take a history of feeding, urinary output (wet nappies)Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Take a sexual history in a sensitive mannerPerianal pathology
Take a thorough medication historyArrhythmias
Take an effective history being mindful of the differential diagnosis of acute and non-acute blistering diseases and the importance of an accurate drug historyBlisters
Take an allergy historyCompromised airway
Take an atopy history (eczema, asthma, rhinitis, family history)Food allergy in paediatrics
Take an occupational history where relevant to skin diseaseAdult eczema
Taking a feeding history for a neonate and understanding advantages of breast feeding6 week check
Talking to a patient about their cancer riskGenetic testing information
Talking to mothers/carers of newborn baby, accurately recording mother/ whanau/carer baby and carer names6 week check
Talking with carers of infants; safety in the home including domestic violence and postnatal depressionIrritable infant
The clinical features and complications of ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthropathiesInflammatory low back pain
The clinical manifestations common to SLE (criteria for classification of SLE)SLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
The effect of SLE on life expectancy, especially in relation to cardiovascular diseaseSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
The role of prophylactic treatment in those with a high risk of breast cancerBreast lump and screening
The use of X-ray and MRI to investigate patients with back painInflammatory low back pain
The use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for prophylaxis against major organ involvement, hypertension and renal crisisSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
The use of autoantibody and complement tests in diagnosing SLESLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
The use of disease modifying drugs and biological therapies in inflammatory arthritisSwollen and tender joints
The use of HLA-B27 genetic markerInflammatory low back pain
The use of simple analgesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their side effects in long-term useSwollen and tender joints
To be able to perform a risk assessment for harm to self or others with an emphasis on suicide and neglect riskAnxiety disorder
Transition from paediatric to adult careChronic sputum production
Travel and exposure historyFebrile returning traveller
Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome and indications for surgical releasePainful hands in the cold
Treatment of gynaecological cancers: curative and debulking surgery, principles of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and palliative carePostmenopausal bleeding
Treatment of patient with sepsisAcute abdominal pain
Treatment of primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenom and drugs which exacerbate itPainful hands in the cold
Treatment options available for breast cancer and the factors involved in deciding which to use; include: surgical, hormonal, oncological (chemo- and biological therapies), palliativeBreast lump and screening
Treatment options for late pregnancy bleeding and their urgency, including consideration of antenatal corticosteroids, transfer to hospital with appropriate level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), mode of deliveryVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Two phases of gout management: acute gout attack and chronic (or tophaceous) gout; recognise and manage the metabolic syndromeGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Types of genetic tests and indications for these; risks of prenatal testing including amniocentesis and chorionic villus samplingFamily with a genetic disorder
Types of perineal trauma (tears and episiotomy)Labour
Typical symptoms of delirium that differentiate it from a dementiaDelirium / dementia
Understand terminology used in reporting cervical smearsAbnormal cervical smear result
Understand and apply recovery principlesAcute psychosis
Understand common childhood epilepsies and febrile convulsionsAltered level of consciousness in a child
Understand difference between screening and diagnostic tests used in the diagnosis of gynaecological cancerPostmenopausal bleeding
Understand emergency management of eye trauma; recognise the extremely urgent nature of chemical injuries to the eye and the need to perform urgent washout of the eye prior to any other managementAcute trauma to the eye
Understand how medically unexplained physical symptoms can presentAgitated and combative patient
Understand indications for and basic interpretation of high resolution CT (HRCT) of thoraxWorsening shortness of breath
Understand many food allergies will not be persistent and need reassessment over timeFood allergy in paediatrics
Understand referral and management of acute and chronic red eyeAcute or chronic red eye
Understand that many symptoms may suggest hypothyroidism, but thyroid function tests are definitive diagnostic testsHypothyroidism
Understand the definition and common causes of stillbirth, and understand its impact on the woman and her familyLate pregnancy complications
Understand the different types of stoma, their special care and where they are placed. Role of the stoma nurseBowel obstruction
Understand the importance of psychosocial factors in precipitating/maintaining chronic and recurrent headachesChild or adolescent with a headache
Understand the management of severe and refractory eczema e.g. the concept of 'wet wraps' and 'weekend treatment'; topical immunomodulators such as pimecrolimus; phototherapy; systemic agents (anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, azathioprine, methotrexate, ciclosporin)Itching child
Understand the principles of triage with children presenting with poisoningOverdose in a child or adolescent
Understand the prognosis of Parkinson's diseaseTremor and parkinsonism
Understand the role of the medical practitioner and public health physicianAlcohol
Understand the role of the multidisciplinary team including midwives, dietitians, obstetricians, obstetric physician, ultrasonographer, neonatologist in optimizing pregnancy outcomeDiabetes in pregnancy
Understand the role of the physician, the public health physician and microbiologistInfectious disease outbreak
Understanding normal feeding, sleeping, crying pattern of infantIrritable infant
Understanding of interventions; role child proof lids, home medicines safetyOverdose in a child or adolescent
Understanding the role of optometrists/pharmacists in care of non-sight-threatening red eye (e.g. conjunctivitis, dry eye)Acute or chronic red eye
Undertake a booking pregnancy history including screening for domestic violence and maternal mental healthPregnancy diagnosis
Undertake a booking pregnancy examination, including measurement of blood pressure, height and weightPregnancy diagnosis
Undertake a careful examination of the skin; identify scabies burrows and mites (using dermoscopy, if available); differentiate usual scabies from crusted scabiesRest home resident with itching and rash
Undertake a careful and full skin examinationAdult eczema
Undertake a general health review including medical and drug history, examination and appropriate investigations. Address any reversible cardiovascular risk factorsRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Urgent management of extreme painBurns
Use 'CAGE' tool to screen for alcohol abuse and apply more detailed assessments such as the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Edwards and Gross criteria for dependenceAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Use history and examination to assess the extent and severity of a rash, including the level of psychological disturbance in a patient; note the presence or absence of comedones and scarring; recognise that acne can, rarely, be a manifestation of endocrine conditionsPimples and rash on the face
Use a slit lamp microscopeAcute or chronic red eye
Use ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to exclude white coat hypertensionSecondary hypertension
Use and interpret the partogramLabour
Use communication skills to counsel for pregnancy optionsPregnancy diagnosis
Use growth charts and Tanner stages of pubertyChild with abnormal puberty
Use growth charts and Tanners staging of pubertyOsteomyelitis
Use of pulmonary function tests and echocardiography as screening for interstitial lung disease and pulmonary vascular diseasePainful hands in the cold
Use of a defibrillator and mini-jetsOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Use of acute phase reactants in diagnosis and in monitoring disease activityHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Use of appropriate communication skills for discussing obesity with patient; screening for depressionObesity
Use of blood products and correction of anticoagulated stateUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Use of bone densitometry in osteoporosis (DEXA scan)Headache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Use of history, physical examination and basic laboratory tests to diagnose causes of anaemiaInfant or child with pallor
Use of immunosuppression and steroids in vasculitis including the importance of bone protection for prevention of steroid-induced osteoporosis; ensuring adequate dose and titration of dose in response to clinical improvement and ESR levelHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Use of prostaglandin E1 in the management of CHDInfant or child with a murmur
Use of pulse oximetryUnwell neonate
Use of radiographs in investigation of oligo-articular painGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Use of urinary catheter, cystoscopy, lithotripsy and nephrostomies in obstructive uropathy; complications of proceduresAcute kidney injury
Utility of bone age in short stature of pubertal delayChild with abnormal puberty
Visual rehabilitation, legal requirements for driving, criteria for enrolment with Blind FoundationSudden loss of vision and headache
When necessary identify the need for the use of an interpreterBlisters
Working knowledge of the slit-lamp microscope in external eye diseaseAcute trauma to the eye
Motor vehicle licensing regulationsAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Assess competencyHyponatraemia
Competence and consentSudden onset severe headache, Eating disorders, Alcohol and drug dependence disorders
Delivering life-changing newsAmenorrhea, Bowel obstruction, Dysphagia, Pancytopenia, Hypercalcaemia and back pain, Adult with abdominal mass
Breaking bad news and conveying prognostic information to family/whānauUnexplained loss of consciousness
Breaking bad news; discussion relating to poor prognosis and dyingOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Deliver life-changing newsPatient with jaundice
Communicate effectively with youth on sensitive topic of sexual healthAcute severe testicular pain
Breaking bad newsAcutely painful limb, Haemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Breaking bad news and coping with cancerHeavy menstrual periods
Breaking bad news to parentsCongenital hearing loss
Breaking bad news, sensitive communication of a chronic incurable diagnosis with patient and whānauChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Breaking bad news, sensitive communication of a chronic, incurable diagnosis with patient and whānauAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Breaking bad news/discussions relating to cancerBreast lump and screening
Breaking bad news in cases of confirmed cancerPostmenopausal bleeding
Breaking bad news to patients and family/whānauNeck lump
Smoking cessation counsellingContraception
Smoking cessationAcutely painful limb
ABC (ask, brief advice, cessation support) approach to smoking cessationStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Ability to communicate appropriate health information to carers about handwashing and management of rehydration of infant at home; ensure appropriate to health literacy of the family/whānauInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Ability to communicate with the patient and family/whānau in a way that ensures they have sufficient knowledge and understanding to be able to make informed decisions and give informed consentSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Ability to deliver life-changing news and empathise with a patient with cancerPupil abnormality
Ability to engage in clinical interactions and provide care in a way that respects and upholds patient rightsTeaching
Ability to engage in clinical interactions in a way that respects and upholds patient rightsHand injury
Ability to use health care data to improve health care access and qualityClinical audit
Ability to work in a teamDiplopia
ACC funding for injuries and how this might impact a patient's historyShoulder pain
Access additional information from a variety of resources if needed to help solve clinical problemsHyponatraemia
Acknowledge impact of illness on family/whānau employment/incomeInfant or child with pallor
Acknowledge that even though a dermatological condition may have few clinical signs, it may be significant and distressing to the patientPimples and rash on the face
Address patient concerns regarding function, employment and insuranceEpilepsy / seizure
Advance care planningUnexplained loss of consciousness
Advance directivesUnexplained loss of consciousness
Advance directives and care planningHeart failure
Advise patient on 'sleep hygiene' issuesDaytime sleepiness
Advocacy for patientsHeart failure
Antibiotic stewardshipUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Appreciate the different religious and cultural approaches to contraceptionContraception
Appreciate the loss of 'normality' and feelings of failure associated with an operative birthLabour
Appreciate the loss of 'normality' for a pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetesDiabetes in pregnancy
Appreciate the reproductive and sexual health needs of women in same sex relationshipsContraception
Appreciate the role of the continence specialist nurse and physiotherapist for pelvic floor strengtheningUrinary incontinence in women
Appreciating the complexity of decision making when early delivery of a baby is indicatedLate pregnancy complications
Appreciating the role of the anaesthetic team and need for ongoing communicationVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Approach to establishing the diagnosis when there is a wide range of differential diagnosesDizziness and vertigo
Approach to paediatric palliative careMusculoskeletal lump
Approach to patient with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and advice regarding protection from STIReactive arthritis
Appropriate management of one's own chronobiology (e.g. travel and night shifts) and minimising impact on work and selfDaytime sleepiness
Appropriately communicate evidence of treatment options to parents/whanau/teachers, including Practice Guidelines in ADHDDisruptive behaviour disorder
Appropriateness of prompt analgesia prior to detailed history and examinationForearm / wrist injury
Ascertaining patient's feelings towards pregnancyPregnancy diagnosis, Risk assessment in early pregnancy
Assent and consentAgitated and combative patient
Assess social factors that may be affecting disease controlType 1 diabetes mellitus
Assessing for postnatal depression and family violenceIrritable infant
Awareness and ability to address potential personal assumptions and biases on the basis of ethnicity, skin colour, frequency of health care use, gender identification, age, sexual orientation, history of addiction, body size, evidence of low socio-economic statusTeaching
Awareness and ability to recognise own stereotypes and biasesChild with abnormal gait
Awareness of anxiety around brain scanning; communicating risks of incidental findings, and claustrophobiaHeadache
Awareness of appropriate medical roles with a severely unwell patient, including contacting the team to provide assistancePostoperative care
Awareness of boundaries with patients in own age groupGroin lump
Awareness of carer burden, assessing for the presence of this and advising on appropriate support pathways for carersDelirium / dementia
Awareness of child’s age appropriate natural embarrassment of examinationChild with disorder of elimination
Awareness of communicating across culturesUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Awareness of cross-cultural differences affecting communication, diagnosis and managementPimples and rash on the face
Awareness of cultural issues when discussing a patient's health statusPostoperative complications
Awareness of cultural or religious factors within whānauGenetic testing information
Awareness of financial issues that may affect treatment decisionsGenetic testing information
Awareness of health issues relevant to LGBTIQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, & questioning) individualsTeaching
Awareness of how annoyance with a patient can result in important diagnoses being missedHyperthyroidism
Awareness of how preconceived ideas of 'significant' skin disease may prejudice an assessment of a patient; a clinically 'mild' skin condition may seem severe to the patientPimples and rash on the face
Awareness of impact on family functioning and associated stressChild with disorder of elimination
Awareness of issues around the health of the clinician and risk of both contraction and spread of infectionUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Awareness of limitation in managing patient in severe pain and when to seek helpFlank pain and dysuria
Awareness of mind-body interaction in clinical conditionsChronic bowel motility problems
Awareness of mind-body link in some dermatological conditionsPimples and rash on the face
Awareness of own level of comfort when talking to someone with psychosisAcute psychosis
Awareness of own opinion regarding investigation and management of genetic disorders; respect patient autonomyGenetic testing information, Family with a genetic disorder
Awareness of own personal views about unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancy, and how this could affect communicationDysuria
Awareness of own reaction to someone in severe painAcute abdominal pain
Awareness of own relationship with alcoholChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Awareness of own sexual health and behaviourDysuria
Awareness of own stress when managing a patient with acute illnessAcute chest pain
Awareness of own views on having children, possible self-identification with patient, and professional boundariesInfertility
Awareness of patient and family/whānau needs when facing deathHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Awareness of patient concerns regarding cerebral bleeds or tumours in chronic headachesHeadache
Awareness of personal views about a situation, and separation from professional roleHip fracture
Awareness of potential stress associated with a new baby in the household; personally, on relationships, and financially6 week check
Awareness of power dynamics regarding an older person in hospitalPreoperative assessment and management
Awareness of social impact of mental illness e.g. stigmaMajor depressive episode
Awareness of the impact of a patient yelling at you - your feelings, and reactionsSelf-harm
Awareness of the impact on the patient of fluid restriction and possible altered body imageChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Awareness of the importance of the multidisciplinary team in management - primary, secondary and tertiaryChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Awareness of the possibility of intimate partner abuse in teenage pregnancyPregnancy diagnosis
Awareness of the risks of abuse of older adultsDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Awareness of the tension between family/whānau involvement in health care decision making and the need to talk to young people without parents presentDysuria
Awareness of the vulnerability of an patient with dementia in long-term residential care for older people and in hospitals.Rest home resident with itching and rash
Awareness of third party interest in knowing medical information (insurance companies and employers)Genetic testing information
Awareness of this as a possible presenting complaint for people with drug-seeking behaviourFlank pain and dysuria
Awareness of your own feelings whilst taking this history and looking at the notesMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Awareness of your own personal reactions to eating disorders; show empathyEating disorders
Awareness of your reactions towards people with personality disordersPersonality disorder
Awareness that medical and psychological symptoms can co-exist and are not mutually exclusiveMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Balance fetal and maternal wellbeing in clinical decision makingVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Balancing side-effects of powerful medications against need to control inflammationSwollen and tender joints
Be able to counsel a patient about behaviour change including smoking cessation, giving thought to their readiness to attempt thisHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Be able to counsel a patient about long-term steroid use, including appropriate discussion of the therapeutic effects and side effectsHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Be able to counsel a patient about the likely disease course (short-lived in acute urticaria/angioedema, longer in chronic urticaria/angioedema)Facial swelling and itchy rash
Be able to tactfully advise about career choice or changeAdult eczema
Be able to work with other health care professionals to collectively decide on a recommendationAAA screening
Be aware of ethical and legal issues regarding unplanned pregnancyDysuria
Be aware of factors influencing length of disability: adherence with treatment, issues of health literacy, attendance for follow-up care, complications of steroid therapyHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Be aware of issues around multiple therapies (complexity for patient and doctor, potential for error, effect on adherence, adverse effects, increased potential for drug interactions)Chronic sputum production
Be aware of ways in which to support a patient with cancerHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Behave in a way that inspires confidence and reduces patient anxietyCompromised airway
Being able to manage couples sensitively who are dealing with a highly emotional life eventInfertility
Being able to manage own identification with the patientPenetrating chest trauma
Being aware of your own skills and calling for senior assistance as requiredPenetrating chest trauma
Beneficence and non-maleficenceChild with disorder of elimination
Beneficence and respect for autonomy; patient refusing life-saving treatmentAnaemia
Best interests principleInfant or child with a murmur, Agitated and combative patient, Self-harm, Eating disorders, Acute psychosis, Bipolar affective disorder, Chronic illness in paediatrics , Food allergy in paediatrics, Sore throat management in the New Zealand context
Boundary and personal wellbeing maintenancePersonality disorder
Breaking bad news in cases of cervical cancerAbnormal cervical smear result
Breaking bad news/discussion about cancerGenetic testing information
Breaking life changing news to to a patient and family/whānau after a major trauma eventNeck injury
Brief intervention for smoking cessationChronic shortness of breath
Capacity and ability to consentSelf-harm
Care and rights of an older patient; power and vulnerabilityBurns
Care when discussing diagnosis, prognosis, treatment options when clinically uncertain and when outside the limits of your own expertiseMusculoskeletal lump
Caring for a woman after a neonatal death; grief counsellingLabour
Challenges faced by women approaching menopauseHeavy menstrual periods
Clinical reasoning - using key signs and symptoms to establish most likely diagnosisAcute or chronic red eye
Clinical reasoning: Consider differential diagnosis, other causes for strabismus, binocularityInfant with strabismus
Clinical reasoning: using key signs and symptoms to establish most likely diagnosisGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Code of Rights, Health and Disability CommissionerRest home resident with itching and rash
Communicate empathetically with caregivers even when entertaining the possibility of non-accidental injuryInfant or child with easy bruising
Communicate empathetically with child and caregiversInfant with jaundice, Infant or child with a murmur, Infant or child with pallor, Abdominal or inguinal lump, Altered level of consciousness in a child, Child with sore joints, Child with disorder of elimination, Chronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents, Osteomyelitis, Acute abdominal pain in children and adolescents, Febrile infant, Child with abnormal puberty, Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea, Child with abnormal gait, Child with generalised swelling, Overdose in a child or adolescent
Communicate empathetically with child and caregivers including talking to older children/adolescents without parents presentChild or adolescent with a headache
Communicate empathetically with child and caregivers; recognition of discussion of delayed development and pervasive developmental disorder can cause significant stress in the caregiversBefore school check
Communicate empathetically with the childInfant or child with easy bruising
Communicate empathetically with the parent/caregiver and show willingness to listen to their common concerns from caregivers around immunising their child and any contraindications6 week check
Communicate empathetically, non-judgementally and supportively with child and caregiverIrritable infant
Communicate sensitively and empathically in potentially emotional situationInfertility
Communicate understanding of the social impact of skin and soft tissue infectionsSkin and soft tissue infection
Communicate with health care professionals involved in this patient's care: dietitian, physician, GP, diabetic educator, members of the diabetic retinopathy screening teamAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Communicate with patient and family/whanau in relation to death and dyingPatient with jaundice, Dysphagia
Communicate with the patient and family/whānau in a way that ensures they have sufficient knowledge and understanding to be able to make informed decisions and give informed consentInfant or child with easy bruising, Altered level of consciousness in a child, Child with generalised swelling
Communicate with the patient and family/whānau in a way that ensures they have sufficient knowledge and understanding to be able to make informed decisions and give informed consent (regarding surgery)Abdominal or inguinal lump
Communicate, in an empathetic manner, with patient and their family/whānuaChronic illness in paediatrics
Communicating about safe sexual practice and screening for sexually transmitted diseasesContraception
Communicating risks and treatments of prematurityLate pregnancy complications
Communicating the diagnosis of a mental illness to a patient and their family/whānauEating disorders, Acute psychosis, Bipolar affective disorder
Communicating the risks and benefits of contraceptive methods; discussing prescribing options with patientsContraception
Communicating with patient and their family/whānauFood allergy in paediatrics, Sore throat management in the New Zealand context
Communication - patient and professionalAcute or chronic red eye
Communication of absolute riskType 2 diabetes mellitus
Communication of primary and secondary prevention to patients and whānau considering health literacy needsSecondary hypertension
Communication skills - writing and oral presentationAAA screening
Communication with a patient for whom English is a second language, and use of interpreter vs family/whānau memberDizziness and vertigo
Communication with family/carers regarding management of a terminal illnessPneumonia
Competence and consent issues including enduring power of attorneyPneumonia
Competence and decision-makingArrhythmias
Competence and voluntariness, role of family/whānauFalls and collapses
Competence, decision-making capacity and consentDelirium / dementia
Complexity of establishing collateral information from several sources – family whanau, staff, managementFalls and collapses
Conduct effective family/whānau meetingsFalls and collapses
ConfidentialityFebrile returning traveller, Epilepsy / seizure, Skin and soft tissue infection
Confidentiality and privacyPregnancy diagnosis, Alcohol and drug dependence disorders
Confidentiality and respect for autonomyType 1 diabetes mellitus
Confidentiality of patient information and how information about one family member can reveal information about the whole familyGenetic testing information, Family with a genetic disorder
Consent and assentChild or adolescent with a headache
Consent for Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA)Neck lump
Consent for initimate examination and use of chaperoneChronic bowel motility problems
Consent for intimate examination and use of a chaperone; consent issues in anaesthetised patientsAcute abdominal pain
Consent for intimate examination and use of chaperoneAmenorrhea, Bowel obstruction, Perianal pathology, Groin lump, Adult with abdominal mass
Consent in a patient with decreased mental capacitySpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Consent issues for young people <16 years (Gillick competence)Child with abnormal puberty
Consent, assent and children's role in discussions and decision-makingChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Consent: information and understandingAccidental overdose
Consent; competenceHead trauma
Consider health literacy needs of patient and family/whānauType 2 diabetes mellitus
Consider patient and family/whānau cultural and spiritual needsType 2 diabetes mellitus
Consider the legal issues relating to hearing loss and drivingHearing loss
Consider the need for an interpreterFebrile infant
Consider the reproductive needs of women in same sex couplesInfertility
Consideration of health literacy needs of the patient and family/whānauKnee pain
Consideration of patient and family/whānau cultural and spiritual support needsChild with abnormal gait, Child with generalised swelling
Consideration of personal biases and assumptions about patients presenting with severe painFlank pain and dysuria
Consideration of risk and benefit with regard to joint replacementKnee pain
Consultation skills in discussing pre-cancerous lesionsAbnormal cervical smear result
Contact tracing after diagnosis of STIReactive arthritis
Continued professional developmentOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Contraception and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention counselling after termination, miscarriage or birthPregnancy diagnosis
Convey importance of urgency and continuity of treatment with a view to limiting long-term sequelaeChild with sore joints
Coping with a new disabilityChronic limb pain
Coping with chronic diseasePersonality disorder
Coping with new disabilityAcutely painful limb
Coping with stressful and emotional eventsVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Coping with stressful and emotional events in pregnancyLate pregnancy complications
Coping with uncertaintyAdrenal crisis
Counsel patient re investigation, diagnosis and management of sleep disordered breathing and insomniaDaytime sleepiness
Counsel patients re exercise and weight lossDaytime sleepiness
Counselling a patient on the importance of prophylactic medications despite being free of symptomsGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Counselling about lifestyle changes to reduce risk of breast cancer (weight loss, exercise, alcohol)Breast lump and screening
Counselling and treating a pregnant woman who is under the age of consentPregnancy diagnosis
Counselling on high risk factors in pregnancy, prenatal screening, appropriate lead maternity carer (LMC) according to pregnancy riskRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Counselling on lifestyle changesInfertility
Counselling regarding contraception options after ectopic pregnancyGynaecological abdominal pain
Counselling regarding early failed pregnancyGynaecological abdominal pain
Counselling regarding the appropriate timing of return to workDiarrhoea
Culturally respectful examinationAcute kidney injury
De-escalation techniques and interviewing with safety in mindPersonality disorder
Deal with patient anxiety and causal uncertaintyFacial swelling and itchy rash
Deal with potential negative feelings such as anger and/or guilt associated with a diagnosis of goutGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Dealing with non-specific presentations and recognising red flagsAdrenal crisis
Death and dyingUnexplained loss of consciousness
Death and dying in young patientsChronic sputum production
Death and dying; issues arising from end-of-lifeBurns
Death and dying; role of palliative care and advance care planningPneumonia
Death certification and the role of the coronerAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Decision-making capacityAgitated and combative patient
Decision-making for othersHead trauma, Altered level of consciousness in an adult
Deescalating an aggressive situationAgitated and combative patient
Delivery of difficult questions regarding child safety and abuseAltered level of consciousness in a child
Demonstrate an empathic approach to a patient with chronic symptomsChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Demonstrate empathetic interviewingDisruptive behaviour disorder
Demonstrate empathic and compassionate approach regarding pre-operative anxietyPreoperative assessment and management
Demonstrate empathic approach to parents of an infant with a distressing presentationUnwell neonate
Demonstrate empathic interviewingAnxiety disorder
Demonstrate empathy and compassion for a person with an illness which has affected their quality of lifeHypothyroidism
Demonstrate empathy when discussing distressing symptomsGross haematuria
Demonstrate insight into how this scenario may impact on your own emotional reactions and well-being. Debrief and seek support if necessaryRectal bleeding
Demonstrate sensitive communication for embarrassing symptomsAcute severe testicular pain
Demonstrate skillful communication for talking to two people who may have different opinionsInfertility
Develop the ability to manage chronic disease and patient expectationsItching child
Develop the ability to simultaneously clinically assess and manage an acute obstetric scenarioVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Develop trust to facilitate sharing of history/eventsHand injury
Developing palliative care skillsNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Difficult conversations with parents; life-limiting conditions such as ventricular hypoplasiaInfant or child with a murmur
Discuss clinical findings with parents and explain the need for further investigationInfant or child with a murmur
Discuss concussion with patient and family/whānauHead trauma
Discuss diagnosis, share information and reduce diagnostic uncertaintyMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Discuss disfiguring injuries with patients and familiesBurns
Discuss issues such as adoption, sperm and egg donationInfertility
Discuss potential for long-term disabilityHead trauma
Discuss prescribing decisions with colleaguesAccidental overdose, Pre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Discuss public perceptions of treatment: ECT and how these are best managedMajor depressive episode
Discuss the need for the patient to continue long-term therapy, even when clinically improved and impact this will have on daily living (including work, sport)Fever and a new murmur
Discuss uncertainty with the patient without causing undue anxietyNeck lump
Discuss with a patient the significance of genetic information for whānauGenetic testing information
Discuss with family safety around the home and storage of medicines and poisonsOverdose in a child or adolescent
Discussing a sexual historyAbnormal cervical smear result
Discussing future pregnancy plans and fertilityGynaecological abdominal pain
Discussing management options in terms of quality of life (physical, emotional, social, financial)Heavy menstrual periods
Discussion of absolute risk and drug side-effectsSecondary hypertension
Discussion of management and outcome with members of staff/students after the eventLabour
Discussion of non-accidental injury with the parentsFracture
Discussion of options for continuing or termination of pregnancy in the context of fetal abnormalityFetal health
Discussion of personal topics including sexual history and possibility of coercionDysuria
Discussion of serious illness with parents, family/whānauFever and headache
Discussion of side-effects of treatmentsHypothyroidism
Discussion of treatment optionsSudden onset shortness of breath
Discussion with patient and family regarding resuscitaiton status and the role of advance directivesNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Discussions around personal topicsUrinary incontinence in women
Discussions relating to potential diagnosis of cancer; not causing undue anxiety but emphasizing urgency of making a diagnosisPostmenopausal bleeding
Display respect and empathy for the patient with dementiaRest home resident with itching and rash
Disposal of body partsAcutely painful limb
Documentation of resuscitation orders and withholding of medical treatment in appropriate situationsPneumonia
Educate patients about serious adverse drug effects and precautions regarding radio-active iodine uptakeHyperthyroidism
Educating patient and family/whānau about chronic disease that will need lifelong treatmentAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Effectively communicate advice regarding lifestyleChronic bowel motility problems
Effectively communicate advice regarding lifestyle (e.g. smoking cessation)Amenorrhea
Effectively communicate and empathise with a patient who has difficulty speaking and laryngeal malignancyUpper airway disease
Effectively communicate disease pathogenesis, prognosis, treatment and the rationale for treatmentGlue ear
Effectively communicate information about lifestyle changes, including smoking cessationAcute chest pain
Effectively communicate regarding lifestyle changes eliciting and incorporating the patient's viewsStable angina
Effectively communicate to provide information about anaesthesia and to obtain consentPreoperative assessment and management
Emotional and ethical implications of gene testingGenetic testing information, Family with a genetic disorder
Empathetic and sensitive consulting styleMenopause
Empathetic communication with family/whānau and sensitivity to parental anxiety which ensues when the possibility of an abnormality is raisedInfant with an altered light reflex, Fetal health
Empathic approach with a distressing presentationSudden painless loss of vision
Empathise about a major operation with complications involving unpleasant symptoms and a longer hospital stayPostoperative complications
Empathise regarding societal norms of body shape and body imageOsteomyelitis
Empathise with a patient focusing on reintegration with societyStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Empathise with a patient in painPostoperative care
Empathise with a patient who has a chronic pain conditionNon-specific back pain
Empathise with a patient with cancerPatient with jaundice
Empathise with a patient with new diagnosis of a neurodegenerative conditionTremor and parkinsonism
Empathise with and understand the impact on the patient and carers living with dementiaDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Empathise with family/whānau member of a major trauma patientAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Empathise with patient with cancerDysphagia
Empathise with patient with chronic diseaseChronic bowel motility problems
Empathise with patient's concern re prognosis and physical deteriorationPainful hands in the cold
Empathise with patients with cancerBowel obstruction
Empathise with patients with distressing symptomsEpistaxis
Empathise with the parent/caregiverCongenital hearing loss
Empathise with the parent/caregiver and show willingness to listen to their concerns recognising failure to grow and feeding can be a source of stressFailure to thrive
Empathise with the patient who has experienced pain for a long period of timePre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Empathise with the patient's experience of living with chronic, disabling painInflammatory low back pain
Empathize with the family/whānau to cope with this socially problematic condition. Reassure them that with an obstructed tear duct the child's visual development is not threatened. Explain that if blocked tear duct then no risk of transmission and no need to keep away from other children or day careWatery eye in an infant
Empathy for patient in severe painFlank pain and dysuria
Empathy for people with chronic diseaseType 1 diabetes mellitus
Empathy for the change of quality of life for patients receiving renal replacement therapyChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Empathy when delivering bad newsMusculoskeletal lump
Encourage exercise, smoking cessation and weight lossType 2 diabetes mellitus
Encourage patients to take ownership of their chronic diseaseType 1 diabetes mellitus
Encourage self-management in an asymptomatic patientType 2 diabetes mellitus
Encouraging concordance with therapy with a disease with no overt symptomsDiabetes in pregnancy
Engaging appropriately with patient, family and student if managing patient in a teaching environmentChild with red swelling around one eye
Ensure a culturally safe environment in life-changing scenariosHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Ensure culturally appropriate support (e.g. spiritual) for the coupleInfertility
Ensure that there is accessible physiotherapy support close to the patientInflammatory low back pain
Equipoise and enrolling patients in researchPolycythaemia, Anaemia, Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, Pancytopenia, Hypercalcaemia and back pain
Establish a multidisciplinary approach to severe drug eruptions with the involvement of dermatology, general medicine, ophthalmology, gynaecology and intensivistsBlisters
Establish a multidisciplinary treatment programme, which may involve a GP, dermatologist, rheumatologist and general physicianRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Establish a relationship with patient and family/whānauFracture
Establish a therapeutic relationship with the patient and realistic treatment goals in the management of a chronic disorder, including addressing physical and psychological aspectsRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Ethical and legal issues related to the use of genetic information for the individual and family/whānauBowel obstruction
Ethical and social implications of genetic testingRectal bleeding
Ethical aspects of prescribing; recognise limits of competence and ask for help when needed; responsibility to update knowledgeRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Ethical issues (e.g. genetic research, xenotransplants)Acute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Ethical issues in consenting for health care and confidential health careDysuria
Ethical issues in the patient with delirium and/or dementia e.g. resuscitation orders, Enduring Power of Attorney, Protection of Personal Property Rights Act (1988), Mental Health Act (1992) and other important legislationDelirium / dementia
Ethical opinions and the legality surrounding abortionPregnancy diagnosis
Ethics and life and death decisionsNeck injury
Ethics associated with treatmentInfertility
Ethics involved with care of family/whānau membersDeep vein thrombosis
Ethics of information sharing/confidentiality with third partiesHand injury
Ethics of life and death decision-makingPenetrating chest trauma
Ethics of medical management of neurodegenerative diseasesTremor and parkinsonism
Ethics regarding consent and advance directivesPostoperative complications
Ethics regarding treatment in minorsDeep vein thrombosis
Ethics, justice and access to renal replacement therapyChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Ethics: life and death decision-makingOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Ethics: treatment and futilityOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Evaluating social history - lifestyle, housing, number of prior Emergency Department presentationsChild with respiratory distress
Evaluating social history, screening for domestic violence/safetyBefore school check
Evaluation of social and school history (any emotional or family/whānau stressors)Child with disorder of elimination, Overdose in a child or adolescent
Evaluation of social historyAcute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Evaluation of social history (any emotional, school, or family stressors, abuse history)Chronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Evaluation of social history including dietary and financial stressorsInfant or child with pallor
Evaluation of social, emotional and school history (any emotional or family/whānau stressors)Child or adolescent with a headache
Examine 'frequent attendance behaviour' and personal perceptions of thisDizziness and vertigo
Explain diagnosis including genetic aspects where appropriate (e.g. carrier status in thalassaemia) to parentsInfant or child with pallor
Explain the need for a septic screen to parents and obtain consent to perform lumbar punctureUnwell neonate
Explaining the risks and benefits of prophylaxis following a needlestickNeedlestick injury
Explanation of medications and their side effects (including gout as a potential side effect of diuretics)Gout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Explore (separately) whether both members of the couple want a childInfertility
Explore and empathise with the difficulties associated with hearing lossHearing loss
Explore issues related to blood product use with patient who refuses blood transfusionUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Explore social history, screening for domestic violence/safety and postnatal depressionFailure to thrive
Explore the ethics of consent and 'best interests' principleUpper airway disease
Explore the possibility of abuse in a sensitive manner, including the issues around confidentialityFalls and collapses
Explore the role of the family/whānauEpistaxis
Explore the social impact of otitis media with effusion, including long term behavioural, speech and educational problemsGlue ear
Facilitate involvement of the family/whānau in managementTremor and parkinsonism
Genetic information: individual and familial aspectsDelirium / dementia
Hand-dominance and effect on employment/recreationHand injury
Having difficult conversation with parents (life threatening conditions: leukaemia and other malignancy)Infant or child with easy bruising
Having difficult conversations with parents/breaking bad news (Duchenne muscular dystrophy)Child with abnormal gait
Headache as a somatisation symptomHeadache
Health needs assessment in older people and awareness of ageismDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Health worker vaccinationsNeedlestick injury
Helping a patient to deal with uncertainty; importance of family involvement and supportNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Helping patients come to terms with a new disabilityPanhypopituitarism
Helping the patient and family/whānau deal with life changing newsStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Hospital transfer: when and howPenetrating chest trauma
How far to investigate in general practice; how to accomplish an appropriate referral and what important points to include in the referral letterSwollen and tender joints
Identify patient's anxiety regarding immunosuppressionSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Identifying reputable sources of informationFebrile returning traveller
Impact of behaviour and views of the health professional on long-term outcome in back painNon-specific back pain
Impact of chronic disease in a young patient group regarding employment, social life, fertility, body imageSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Impact of chronic disease in a young patients with regards to employment, social life and body imageNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Impact of chronic symptoms on self employed patients and the contextual factors associated with fitness for workDizziness and vertigo
Impact on pregnant woman and her family/whānau of genetic counsellingFetal health
Impact on the patient and family/whānau concerning prognosisSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Impact on whānau of long-term social careAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Impaired colleague; roles and responsibilitiesAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Importance of a balanced diet on health and wellbeing; respect patient's perspective on lifestyle choicesAnaemia
Importance of communication with primary care providerGynaecological abdominal pain
Importance of hand hygiene in the clinical environmentSkin and soft tissue infection
Importance of having a plan and information to answer patient's questions when you break bad newsSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Importance of patient choice in management of a miscarriage and ectopic pregnancyGynaecological abdominal pain
Importance of pre-conceptual counselling and interdisciplinary care during pregancy for women with heart diseaseValvular heart disease
Influence of patient's health status and opinions on choice of therapyElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Injuries that have significant implications on work and social functioningShoulder pain
Interaction and boundaries with patient who may be a similar age to yourselfReactive arthritis
Interdisciplinary care for patients with known or suspected cancerAdult with abdominal mass
Interdisciplinary care of women of reproductive age with acute abdominal pain (surgeon and gynaecologist)Acute abdominal pain
Interprofessional management of chronic diseaseSudden onset shortness of breath
Interventions to assist reduction in alcohol consumption and dietary measuresGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Intimate discussionsFebrile returning traveller
Intimate examination and use of a chaperoneAbnormal cervical smear result, Heavy menstrual periods, Postmenopausal bleeding, Breast lump and screening, Elevation of prostate-specific antigen, Gynaecological abdominal pain, Vaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Intimate examination and use of chaperoneAcute severe testicular pain, Dysuria, Infertility
Intimate examinations and use of a chaperoneUrinary incontinence in women
Involve family in discussions of prognosis and management with patients consentHyponatraemia
Involve senior staff to ensure appropriate management and the safety of the patientFalls and collapses
Involvement in teaching, supervision, leadershipDiplopia
Involvement of multidisciplinary team in cases of fetal abnormalityFetal health
Know the obligations of the doctor in relation to New Zealand Transport Authority guidelinesType 1 diabetes mellitus
Know the obligations of the doctor in relation to the New Zealand Transport Authority guidelines on driving and diabetesAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Knowing the obligations of the doctor in relation to the New Zealand Transport Authority guidelines on drivingPanhypopituitarism
Knowing when to refer to specialistDiabetes insipidus
Knowledge of when to get social worker involved; entitlements: e.g. Child Disability Allowance, 'Healthy Homes'Child with sore joints
Learn to manage your own uncertainty while awaiting the resultsRectal bleeding
Legal aspects of compulsory assessment and treatment, Mental Health Act, Right 7(4) of the Health and Disability Commissioner’s Code of RightsAgitated and combative patient
Legal considerations of power of attorneyStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Legal implications of diagnosing a communicable diseaseInfectious disease outbreak
Legal issues with power of attorney and living willDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Legal ramifications of underage pregnancy and role of the police and social workerPregnancy diagnosis
Legal requirement for maintaining motor vehicle licences after acute coronary syndromes; issues of confidentialityAcute chest pain
Legal rights of the mother and fetusFetal health
Liaise effectively with family/whānau and allied health professionals for an assessment of the home environmentBlisters
Liaison with GP and other specialtiesPupil abnormality
Lifestyle change adviceHeavy menstrual periods
Lifestyle changesRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Lifestyle interventions including cessation of smokingChronic limb pain
Maintain appropriate professional boundariesRectal bleeding
Maintaining confidentialityPanhypopituitarism
Manage an emergency situation; ability to work effectively in a team in an emergency situation including either leading or taking directionsCompromised airway
Manage expectations; most people don't expect it to be as hard as it isPostpartum care
Manage possible embarrassment arising from examination of groinGroin lump
Manage your own professionalism and judgement about interacting with a patient who smells of urine and faecesFalls and collapses
Management of a patient with severe pain and communication with patient and family/whānauFlank pain and dysuria
Management of an acutely unwell patient; interaction with family/whānauPancytopenia
Managing an anxious patient and exploring beliefs about injury/illnessNeedlestick injury
Managing challenging behaviourPersonality disorder
Managing chronic disease including inter-professional practice and recognising appropriate time to refer to palliative careChronic shortness of breath
Managing conflict in the therapeutic relationship such as dealing with a patient or parent who requests non-standard treatmentUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Managing embarrassment when taking sexual history regarding anal symptomsPerianal pathology
Managing own stress with patient in acute painFlank pain and dysuria
Managing patient expectations of treatment outcomesHeavy menstrual periods
Managing patient's expectations: unexplained infertility, maternal age, relationship strainInfertility
Managing patient's ideas, concerns and expectations particularly in the context of unproven alternative therapiesAdrenal crisis
Managing patient's ideas, concerns and expectations, particularly in the context of unproven alternative therapiesHypothyroidism
Managing patients with physical symptoms and distress but where there may be no organic pathologyMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Managing professional/personal boundary issues with long-term patientsChronic sputum production
Managing therapeutic relationship; dealing with a patient or parent who requests non-standard treatment or is excessively anxious around food allergensFood allergy in paediatrics
Managing your stress when dealing with an urgent situation/unwell patientSudden onset severe headache
Medical aspects of fitness to drive (NZTA)Delirium / dementia, Daytime sleepiness
Mental Health Act application and criteria for compulsory admissionSelf-harm, Eating disorders, Acute psychosis, Bipolar affective disorder
Multidisciplinary management of a high risk pregnancyDiabetes in pregnancy
Negotiating agreed management, explaining, planning, sharing information and ensuring understandingPainful hands in the cold
Non-judgemental approach to caregiversOverdose in a child or adolescent
Non-judgemental approach to mental illnessEating disorders, Acute psychosis, Medically unexplained physical symptoms, Alcohol and drug dependence disorders
Non-judgemental approach to mental illness (i.e. stigma reduction)Self-harm
Non-judgemental approach to mental illness and demonstrate empathyMajor depressive episode
Non-judgemental approach to mental illness and reducing stigmaAnxiety disorder, Disruptive behaviour disorder
Non-judgemental approach to parents and parentingDisruptive behaviour disorder
Non-judgemental attitude to history of eventsChild with respiratory distress, Fracture, Hand injury
Non-judgemental, empathic approach to mental illnessBipolar affective disorder
Non-judgmental approach to mental illnessPersonality disorder
Normalising the menopause transition and normal ageingMenopause
Obtaining consent from parents for participation in screening and well child checksBefore school check
Open disclosure and adverse eventsWorsening shortness of breath
Open disclosure and apology in the event of medical errorForearm / wrist injury
Order appropriate investigations and avoid further iatrogenic harmMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Parental role and decision-making for childrenChild with sore joints
Patient and family/whānau education about being responsible for their disease and altering doses, including medic alert braceletAdrenal crisis
Patient autonomy and unconventional treatmentNon-specific back pain, Dizziness and vertigo
Patient counselling re risk vs. benefit of treatmentWorsening shortness of breath
Patient educationDislocated joint
Patient education - appropriate recommendations, advice regarding risks and appropriately timed referral for significant red eye conditions, appropriate advice for self-limiting conditionsAcute or chronic red eye
Patient education concerning appropriate medication useAccidental overdose
Patient education, including anticoagulant counsellingArrhythmias
Patient education; evidence for, strategiesChronic shortness of breath
Patient fears about hormone treatmentsAdrenal crisis
Patient information regarding return to sport/workKnee injury
Patient privacy and confidentialitySelf-harm
Patient rights and requests for treatmentSecondary hypertension
Patient rights and safetyRest home resident with itching and rash
Patient/family/whānau requests for treatment; futility of treatment; withdrawing treatmentBurns
Perform examination in a manner that acknowledges the child's natural embarrassmentChild with abnormal puberty
Perform intimate breast and pelvic examinations with sensitivityPostpartum care
Perform physical and genital examination in a sensitive manner; acknowledge the potential for embarrassment in an older childAbdominal or inguinal lump
Potential for joint destruction with inflammatory arthritis and the need for active treatment to maintain employmentSwollen and tender joints
Power dynamics regarding the interaction between this consultant and yourselfAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Practice guidelines in anxiety disordersAnxiety disorder
Practise self-care by keeping vaccinations up to dateUpper airway disease
Pre and post-test counsellingGenetic testing information
Principles of best interest and patient advocacyNeck injury, Hip fracture
Principles of care of older people and understanding their specific ageingDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Principles of consent and assent, competence and the role of the family in these areas for a patient with dementiaDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Principles of informed consentGenetic testing information
Principles of prevention of adverse drug reactionsBlisters
Principles underlying competency and criteria to define someone as 'not competent'Acute psychosis, Bipolar affective disorder
Principles underlying informed consent and valid consentPanhypopituitarism
Professional and sensitive communication with family/whānau when discussing sensitive topicsHip fracture
Professional communication with distressed patient and with staffAcute trauma to the eye
Professional obligation and ethics involved when you suspect a colleague is drinking excessivelyAlcohol
Professional obligations and legal aspects of 'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation' (DNAR) orderOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Professional obligations and personal response to withholding and withdrawing treatmentHeart failure
Professional obligations towards communicable diseasesInfectious disease outbreak
Prompt referral to Paediatric Cardiology serviceInfant or child with a murmur
Protection of Personal and Property Rights ActPneumonia
Protection of vulnerable adultsFalls and collapses
Provide a long-term care plan and establish a therapeutic relationshipAdult eczema
Provide advice regarding weight loss and lifestyle modificationObesity
Provide basic genetic counsellingHaemochromatosis
Provide patients with relevant treatment options for obstructive sleep apnoea and obesity hyperventilation syndromeDaytime sleepiness
Providing advice and support in relation to employment issues and activities of daily livingPainful hands in the cold
Psychological and social impact of infertilityInfertility
Psychological impact of abortion and necessary supportPregnancy diagnosis
Psychology of management of stressHeadache
Rapid assessment of medical emergenciesFever and headache
Reassure patient without needing to recourse to doing every last investigationHeadache
Reassuring patients when lesions are benignBreast lump and screening
Recognise people vulnerable to exploitationInfertility
Recognise risk behaviour in adolescence and depressionOverdose in a child or adolescent
Recognise that it is sometimes appropriate to shift focus to management of symptomsFacial swelling and itchy rash
Recognise that this presentation can cause significant stress and frustration for the caregiversIrritable infant
Recognise that this presentation can cause significant stress in the caregiversAltered level of consciousness in a child
Recognise the importance of timely multidisciplinary communication within maternal mental health teamPostpartum care
Recognise the need for active treatment to maintain employmentInflammatory low back pain
Recognise the role of lactation consultantPostpartum care
Recognise the role of the community midwife and GP in the postpartum management of mother and babyPostpartum care
Recognise the social and psychological impact of having a babyPostpartum care
Recognise when there is a critical need for referral and communication with other medical colleaguesInfant with jaundice
Recognising and advising on any potential triggers; e.g. TV, lighting, sleep-deprivationEpilepsy / seizure
Recognition that ongoing severe pain requires immediate reviewForearm / wrist injury
Recovery principlesBipolar affective disorder
Referral to Paediatric Developmental services and social worker for a needs analysisFetal health
Reflect on one's own sexual healthAcute severe testicular pain
Reflect on own attitudes to smoking-related illness and how it may affect patient interactionDysphagia
Reflect on own background and values and their potential impact on one's practice in a patient who has a smoking-related illnessGross haematuria
Reflect on own embarrassment when performing sensitive examinationsAcute severe testicular pain
Reflect on perceptions of iatrogenesisAcute kidney injury
Reflect on personal attitudes to obesityObesity
Reflect on the mind-body link between pre-operative anxiety and post-operative recoveryPreoperative assessment and management
Reflection on your feelings about amputation and smokingChronic limb pain
Refusal of medical treatmentSelf-harm
Respect for autonomy and professional integritySecondary hypertension
Respect for autonomy; respect and uphold patient rightsType 2 diabetes mellitus
Respect for patient autonomy in respect to treatmentHyperthyroidism
Respect the principle of autonomyInfertility
Respecting a women's views and choices in labour and birth (birth plan)Labour
Responding to professional problems of colleaguesAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Right to know / right not to know informationGenetic testing information
Risk:benefit ratio of medicationsAccidental overdose
Role as patient advocateWorsening shortness of breath
Role of palliative care and community hospiceHypercalcaemia and back pain
Role of Age Concern, DHB regulatory bodies for aged care, police; understand the Protection of Personal and Property Rights legislation regarding protection of patientsFalls and collapses
Role of advance care planning and palliative careChronic shortness of breath
Role of Child Mental Health Services, Paediatric Services, Education Services and the multi-disciplinary team in the care of a young person with ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorderDisruptive behaviour disorder
Role of formal hospital multidisciplinary meeting in facilitating appropriate care for patients with cancerAdult with abdominal mass
Role of infection control and personal protection equipmentDiarrhoea
Role of Medical Council of New ZealandAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Role of multidisciplinary care and palliative care teamsMusculoskeletal lump
Role of sexual therapist and psychologistInfertility
Role of the Accident Compensation CorporationHead trauma, Accidental overdose, Falls and collapses, Burns, Dislocated joint, Needlestick injury, Penetrating chest trauma
Role of the Accident Compensation Corporation (and completion of paperwork: ACC45)Superficial injuries
Role of the general practice in health preventionBefore school check
Role of the multi-disciplinary team in the care of patient with an anxiety disorderAnxiety disorder
Role of the multidisciplinary team to diagnose, treat and follow up a woman with breast cancerBreast lump and screening
Role of the police and coroner in trauma patientsPenetrating chest trauma
Role of the police, coronerBurns
Safety issues related to seizures/epilepsy: fitness to drive, swimming, and operating heavy machineriesEpilepsy / seizure
Screening for family violence in a sensitive mannerVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Screening safety questions for family violenceInfant or child with easy bruising
Self care - understanding the effects of alcoholAlcohol
Self care in gastroenteritisInfectious disease outbreak
Self-awareness about impact of discussing life changing news with a young patient and family/whānauLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Self-awareness regarding managing diagnosic uncertaintyElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Self-careAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Self-care in clinical situations involving pressure and urgent managementUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Self-care regarding contact with blood and other bodily fluidsEpistaxis
Self-care: coping under pressure and the ability to reflect in actionCompromised airway, Upper airway disease
Self-care: coping with distressing presentationsBurns
Self-care: coping with distressing presentations and maintaining your ability to carry out your tasksPenetrating chest trauma
Self-care: coping with stressful situationsPostoperative complications
Self-care: ensure relevant vaccinations are up-to-date and demonstrate personal safety regarding prevention of needle-stick injuryChronic liver disease
Self-care: personal safetyAgitated and combative patient
Self-care: preventing needlestick injuriesNeedlestick injury
Self-management of airways diseaseChronic shortness of breath
Self-reflective competenciesClinical audit
Sensitivity around body image, and understand the influence of education level, media, and culture on one's perspective on lifestyle choicesChildhood obesity
Show empathySelf-harm, Acute psychosis, Medically unexplained physical symptoms
Show empathy; understand how parents frightened/perceptions exaggerated by concept of anaphylactic food allergyFood allergy in paediatrics
Showing empathyPersonality disorder, Alcohol and drug dependence disorders
Social and developmental impact of mental illness in childhoodDisruptive behaviour disorder
Social and financial impact of chronic illness and disability in child for family/whānauChronic illness in paediatrics
Social and financial impact of food restrictionFood allergy in paediatrics
Social impact of dementiaDelirium / dementia
Social impact of mental illnessAnxiety disorder, Self-harm, Eating disorders, Acute psychosis, Bipolar affective disorder, Personality disorder, Medically unexplained physical symptoms, Alcohol and drug dependence disorders
Social stigma around urinary tract conditionsElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Stigma of diagnosisEpilepsy / seizure
Strategies for dealing with uncertain diagnosisReactive arthritis
Supporting normality during pregnancyRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Supporting patient choice (continuation of pregnancy, termination, adoption)Pregnancy diagnosis
Supporting patients to self-manage conditions with no symptomsSecondary hypertension
Supportive treatment: counselling, patient and family/whānau education, patient support groups, appropriate reliable web-based sites for informationPainful hands in the cold
Suspicion and recognition of abuse of older adultsHip fracture
Tailor management to patient's individual circumstancesType 1 diabetes mellitus
Taking a collateral historyArrhythmias
Talking to young people and adolescents without parentsChild with abnormal puberty
Teach patients how to use medications correctly: glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) sprayStable angina
Team and leadership skillsLabour
Team work - understanding the role of other ophthalmic and non-ophthalmic health professionals in the identification of risks and management of acute and chronic eye conditions/multidisciplinary approach required for some conditionsAcute or chronic red eye
Team work - understanding the role of other ophthalmic and non-ophthalmic health professionals in the immediate and ongoing management of acute chemical eye injuriesAcute trauma to the eye
Team work with allied professionsChild with red swelling around one eye
Team work: communication between ophthalmologist, rheumatologist and GP for long-term managementSudden loss of vision and headache
Team work: interaction with optometrists and orthoptistsInfant with strabismus
Team work: interaction with relevant specialists (GP, ophthalmology, cardiology, neurology)Sudden painless loss of vision
Team work: understanding the role of other ophthalmic and non-ophthalmic health professionals (e.g. optometrists) in identification, monitoring and referralGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
The aggressive patientAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
The appropriate management of uncertain diagnosesSkin tumours
The effect of rheumatoid arthritis on life-expectancySwollen and tender joints
The parental role and decision-making for childrenOsteomyelitis
The possible social isolation, loss of employment and wider psychological consequences of incontinenceUrinary incontinence in women
The role of ACC, Health and Disability Commissioner and NZ Medical Council in medical misadventure claimsForearm / wrist injury
Time management of complicated history in ED settingFalls and collapses
Time mananagement of a more complex presentation in short GP consultationAdrenal crisis
Time-management of consultationMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Time-management: taking a complex history in a primary care settingChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Transition of childhood chronic illness to adult services and palliative careChronic illness in paediatrics
Treatment of self and personal contactsDislocated joint
Understand concepts of patient competency and decision-making capacityGenetic testing information
Understand consent and competenceNeck injury, Hip fracture
Understand how family and school dynamics can influence behaviourBefore school check
Understand how family/whānau and school dynamics can influence behaviourChild or adolescent with a headache
Understand issues related to confidentiality and stigma of HIV infectionFever and adenopathy
Understand patient's anxiety regarding the possiblity of an underlying causeEpilepsy / seizure
Understand the legal requirements for retaining a New Zealand driver's licenceAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Understand the burden of chronic disease on patient, his/hertheir family/whānau and the healthcare systemPolycythaemia
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Understand the role of community midwife and patient choice of lead maternity carer (LMC)Pregnancy diagnosis
Understand the role of multidisciplinary team in management of gynaecological malignancyPostmenopausal bleeding
Understand the role of patient support groups eg. Diabetes New ZealandType 1 diabetes mellitus
Understand the role of the doctor as health advocate for the population they serve, and appreciate the tensions that may arise between advocating for the population and treating individual patientsAAA screening
Understand the socio-economic factors that contribute to teenage pregnancyPregnancy diagnosis
Understand the variability of symptom sensation, perception and reporting shortness of breathChronic shortness of breath
Understand the ways in which pruritus can affect an individual's sleep, function and relationshipsFacial swelling and itchy rash
Understand your limitations and when to call for helpPostoperative complications
Understanding barriers to accessing healthcare for adolescentsSudden onset shortness of breath
Understanding need for early specialist referralMusculoskeletal lump
Understanding of clinical audit and quality improvement processesClinical audit
Understanding of professional and legal issues related to clinical auditClinical audit
Understanding that management needs to balance maternal risks with fetal risksLate pregnancy complications
Understanding the risks and benefits of interventions such as induction of labour, caesarean deliveryDiabetes in pregnancy
Understanding the role of the midwife and obstetrician in a high risk pregnancyRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Understanding the role of the neonatology teamLate pregnancy complications
Understanding your role in relation to patients involved with policeHand injury
Undertake full informed consent processHyperthyroidism
Undertake full informed consent process, allowing the patient to fully voice concerns and ask questionsPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Use of interpreterInfant or child with a murmur
What to do when you suspect non-accidental injury including professional and legal obligationsFracture
What to include in a primary care focussed history and examination and time-management of the consultationSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Withdrawing neonatal care owing to futility of treatmentLabour
Working with alternative medicine providersDizziness and vertigo
Your attitude to a patient who has taken an overdose, and who may be a similar age to yourselfSelf-harm
Ability to cater for differential health literacy needs of Māori and whānauPostoperative care
Ability to cater for differential health literacy needs of Māori patients and whānauInfant or child with a murmur, Facial swelling and itchy rash, Infant or child with pallor, SLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands, Watery eye in an infant, Itching child, Congenital hearing loss, Accidental overdose, Valvular heart disease, Child with disorder of elimination, Compromised airway, Fever and a new murmur, Secondary hypertension, Epilepsy / seizure, Pre-admission and surgical risk assessment, Hearing loss, 6 week check, Postoperative complications, Gout / acute pain and swelling of knee, Irritable infant, Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea, Sudden onset shortness of breath
Ability to cater for differential health literacy needs of Māori patients and whānau particularly in regard to warfarin treatmentDeep vein thrombosis
Ability to cater for differential health literacy needs of patient and whānauSkin and soft tissue infection
Ability to cater to differential health literacy needs of Māori patients and whānauPupil abnormality, Gynaecological abdominal pain
Ability to discuss the return of any body parts to whānau if requested post-surgeryChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Ability to recognise own stereotypes and biases in relation to Māori patients and whānauBurns
ACC evidence of reduced delivery of care for MāoriForearm / wrist injury
Access to antenatal screening in view of poorer antenatal care coverage for MāoriFetal health
Access to cultural and spiritual support for patients and whānauHyperthyroidism
Access to cultural expertise and resourcesMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Access to cultural resources in an Emergency DepartmentAgitated and combative patient
Access to cultural resources when poor prognosis and deathOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Access to cultural/spiritual support for patient and whānauChild with disorder of elimination
Access to kaupapa Māori servicesSecondary hypertension
Access to primary health careOsteomyelitis
Accessing cultural support in life-changing scenariosCongenital hearing loss
Acknowledge the disproportionate impact of illness on whānau employment/income and therefore availability and models of caregivingPreoperative assessment and management
Acknowledgement of disproportionate impact of illness of whānau employment/income and therefore availability and models of caregivingNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Acknowledgement of the disproportionate impact of illness on whānau employment/incomeAdult eczema
Acknowledgement of the disproportionate impact of illness on whānau employment/income, and therefore availability and models of caregivingInfant with jaundice, Bowel obstruction, Neonatal stridor, SLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands, Itching child, Child or adolescent with a headache, Febrile infant, Upper respiratory tract symptoms, Overdose in a child or adolescent
Acknowledgement of the disproportionate impact of illness on whānau employment/income, and therefore availability to attend outpatient clinics/appointmentsGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Acknowledgement of the disproportionate impact of illness on whānau employment/income; availability and models of caregivingAcute trauma to the eye
Acknowledgement of the impact of illness on employment/income/social rolesHearing loss
Appreciate unique familial mutations in Māori families as a risk factor for developing cancers such as gastric cancerRectal bleeding
Appreciate unique familial mutations in Māori families for developing cancers such as gastric cancer, and how this information has impacted on cancer researchAdult with abdominal mass
Appreciating the barriers to cervical screening and improving access to the New Zealand screening programme for Māori womenAbnormal cervical smear result
Appreciating the factors contributing to a higher incidence of cervical cancer in Māori womenAbnormal cervical smear result
Appropriate and timely engagement with whānauFever and headache
Appropriate and timely engagement with whānauFever and adenopathy
Appropriate engagement and consultation with whānauPostoperative care, Infant or child with a murmur, Neonatal stridor, Polycythaemia, Infant with an altered light reflex, Congenital hearing loss, Accidental overdose, Compromised airway, Child with red swelling around one eye, Burns, Osteomyelitis, Pre-admission and surgical risk assessment, Preoperative assessment and management, Acute abdominal pain in children and adolescents, Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, Before school check, Upper airway disease, Gout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Appropriate engagement and consultation with whānauDisruptive behaviour disorder
Appropriate engagement and consultation with whānauMajor depressive episode, Chronic upper abdominal symptoms, Sudden onset shortness of breath, Chronic sputum production, Chronic liver disease
Appropriate engagement and consultation with whānau in smoking cessation and management of type 2 diabetesType 2 diabetes mellitus
Appropriate engagement and consultation with whānau particularly around health issues such as reproduction/cancerAcute abdominal pain
Appropriate engagement and consultation with whānau, as well as the patientFetal health
Appropriate engagement with whānau including facilitating access to cultural supportChild with respiratory distress
Appropriate recall/outreach systems in primary care to achieve equitable access to preventive care including Tamariki Ora and kaupapa Māori sudden unexpected death in infants (SUDI) prevention programmes6 week check
Assess health literacy needs of whānauAltered level of consciousness in a child, Acute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Avoid stereotypes/prejudice for young Māori (e.g. that Māori are violent, drug takers, likely to be in fights), and explore specific risk factors for each individualHand injury
Aware that Māori and other disadvantaged groups of the community are over-represented in certain public health issues, and the importance of developing culturally sensitive strategiesChildhood obesity
Awareness and ability to recognise own stereotypes and biases in relation to Māori patients and whānauInfant or child with easy bruising, Disruptive behaviour disorder
Awareness of barriers to accessing healthcareInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Awareness of context of educational inequities, especially for Māori boysDisruptive behaviour disorder
Awareness of differential ACC claims and rehabilitation for Māori vs non- MāoriNeck injury
Awareness of differential pattern of interaction with mental health services for Māori (e.g. more likely to enter through justice system)Acute psychosis
Awareness of differing disease risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New ZealandPreoperative assessment and management
Awareness of differing pharmaceutical profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in NZAccidental overdose
Awareness of differing profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding compared with non-Māori in New Zealand (hepatitis B, H.pylori, stomach cancer)Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Awareness of differing risk profiles for atopy between Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New ZealandAdult eczema
Awareness of differing risk profiles for atopy between Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in NZItching child
Awareness of differing risk profiles for cancer between Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in NZAdult with abdominal mass
Awareness of differing risk profiles for cardiovascular disease in Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New Zealand (higher smoking rates and hypertension, reduced access to primary prevention)Acute chest pain
Awareness of differing risk profiles for diplopia between Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New ZealandDiplopia
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations)Gout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New ZealandSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New Zealand (e.g. housecrowding and meningitis)Infant or child with easy bruising
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New Zealand for renal calculus and renal failureFlank pain and dysuria
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New Zealand in cardiovascular diseaseStable angina
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New Zealand in presentations of jaundice (e.g. hepatitis, cancer)Patient with jaundice
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New Zealand presenting with neck lumpsNeck lump
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New Zealand presenting with dyspnoea (e.g. rheumatic heart disease, tuberculosis)Heart failure
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New Zealand presenting with heart murmursFever and a new murmur
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New Zealand when presenting with deep vein thrombosis (such as underlying cancer)Deep vein thrombosis
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New Zealand with regard to viral and cancer causes for jaundiceChronic liver disease
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in NZ in people presenting with swallowing problems (e.g. higher cancer and stroke rates for Māori)Dysphagia
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in NZ presenting with abnormal liver function testsObesity
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in NZ relevant to anaemia in children including deprivation, chronic infectionInfant or child with pallor
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in NZ relevant to gastroenteritis (e.g. water supply in rural areas)Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in NZ; ask about breastfeeding, smoking in home, heating at home6 week check
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) presenting with heart murmurs compared with non-Māori in New ZealandValvular heart disease
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) requiring surgery compared with non-Māori in NZPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations)compared with non-Māori in New Zealand (relevant to causes of jaundice)Infant with jaundice
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori compared with non-MāoriChronic shortness of breath, Chronic sputum production
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori compared with non-Māori in NZHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori compared with non-Māori, for different types of upper airways diseaseUpper airway disease
Awareness of differing risk profiles for Māori presenting with suicide attempts including racism, deprivation, unemploymentSelf-harm
Awareness of differing risk profiles for skin cancer between Māori compared with non-Māori in New ZealandSkin tumours
Awareness of disproportionate impact of socioeconomic deprivation on incidence/outcomes of rheumatic heart disease for Māori, and appropriate responseValvular heart disease
Awareness of disproportionate impact of socioeconomic deprivation on Māori and appropriate responseFracture
Awareness of disproportionate impact of socioeconomic deprivation on Māori, and appropriate responseFalls and collapses, Burns, Failure to thrive, Upper respiratory tract symptoms
Awareness of disproportionate impact of socioeconomic deprivation on Māori, particularly for health-related behaviours, and appropriate responseObesity
Awareness of disproportionate impact of socioeconomic deprivation on Māori, particularly Maori childrenInfant or child with easy bruising
Awareness of ethnic inequalities in the incidence of infectious diseaseFever and headache
Awareness of evidence that pain tends to be undertreated in disadvantaged populationsBurns
Awareness of health care disparities; e.g. tendency for medical practitioners to underprescribe preventer inhalers for Māori children with asthma and conscious attempt to avoid delivering poorer quality careChild with respiratory distress
Awareness of impact of socioeconomic deprivation on Māori and appropriate responseSwollen and tender joints
Awareness of issues relating to organ donation for Māori including fact that Māori have less access to waiting lists for cadaveric transplants, but higher rates of familial transplantsChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Awareness of organ donation issues within a Māori cultural contextChild with generalised swelling
Awareness of stereotypes and biasFebrile returning traveller
Awareness of the differences in incidence of genetic conditions between different ethnic groupsHaemochromatosis
Awareness of the different cultural perception towards hereditary disease in MāoriHaemochromatosis
Awareness of unique mutations within the Māori population (and other minority ethnic groups)Haemochromatosis
Awareness of Whānau dynamics (who is/are carers)Infant or child with pallor, Chronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents, Child with generalised swelling
Awareness of whānau dynamics (who is/are carers) and where the child stays during the school weekChild with disorder of elimination
Awareness of whānau dynamics (who is/are carers), whānau care giving issues, impact of illness on whānau employment/income (if needing to take time off work to be with child)Abdominal or inguinal lump
Awareness of whānau dynamics (who is/are carers, whānau caregiving issues, impact of illness on whānau employment/income (if needing to take time off work to be with child)Acute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Awareness that hospitalisation rates for arthritis (including gout, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis) are higher for Māori than non-MāoriSwollen and tender joints
Barriers in access to and management of diabetes for MāoriAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Barriers to access for Māori with musculoskeletal injuries and ACC evidence of reduced delivery of careKnee injury
Barriers to access to healthcare6 week check
Barriers to acute healthcare service for Māori and other disadvantaged groups in the communityInfectious disease outbreak
Barriers to health screening programmes for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations)Hypercalcaemia and back pain
Barriers to healthcare for Māori with diabetesType 2 diabetes mellitus
Be aware of barriers to early treatment, that result in exposure to greater harm from complications of the illness, risks of invasive investigations and prolonged treatmentHyponatraemia
Cancer inequalities of Māori vs non-MāoriSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Caring for kaumatua and kuiaFalls and collapses, Burns
Cater for differential health literacy needs of Māori patients and whānauChronic bowel motility problems, Patient with jaundice, Preoperative assessment and management, Adult with abdominal mass, Chronic upper abdominal symptoms, Chronic liver disease
Communicate effectively with patient and family/whānauHyponatraemia
Communicating with patients and whānauHyperthyroidism
Communication with patient and whānau (e.g. running a whānau meeting) in a setting of iatrogenesisAcute kidney injury
Communication with patients and whānauPanhypopituitarism
Communication with whānauUnexplained loss of consciousness
Communication with whānau about poor prognosis and dyingOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Communication with whānau when a patient has a poor prognosisAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Comparative sexual health among Māori - awareness of differential access to services /quality of medical careReactive arthritis
Competency in engaging in a family/whānau meeting if requiredAltered level of consciousness in a child, Child with generalised swelling
Competency in engaging in a family/whānau meeting, even if the patient is non-Māori (family members may be Māori)Postpartum care
Consider access to cultural/spiritual support for patient and whānauPostoperative care
Consider access to cultural/spiritual support for patient and whānauPreoperative assessment and management
Consider ethnic disparities in adverse events during hospitalisation and the management of pain in New ZealandPostoperative care
Consideration of access to cultural / spiritual support for patient and whānauPersonality disorder, Gynaecological abdominal pain, Gradual deterioration in visual acuity over time, Blisters
Consideration of access to cultural /spiritual support for patient and whānauGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Consideration of access to cultural and spiritual support for patient/whānauNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Consideration of access to cultural/spiritual support for patient and whānauChronic bowel motility problems, Infant or child with a murmur, Polycythaemia, Patient with jaundice, Fetal health, Child or adolescent with a headache, Compromised airway, Falls and collapses, Burns, Delirium / dementia, Penetrating chest trauma, Panhypopituitarism, Pre-admission and surgical risk assessment, Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, Pneumonia, Upper airway disease, Gross haematuria
Consideration of access to cultural/spiritual support for patient and whānauSelf-harm, Major depressive episode, Chronic upper abdominal symptoms, Overdose in a child or adolescent
Consideration of access to cultural/spiritual support for patient and whānau including advice on rongoa and interactions with warfarinDeep vein thrombosis
Consideration of access to cultural/spiritual support for patient and whānau including return of body partsAcute abdominal pain
Consideration of access to cultural/spiritual support for patient/whānauPostpartum care
Consideration of access to cultural/spiritual support for patient/whānau (including accommodating return of any body parts to whānau if requested)Vaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Consideration of access to cultural/spiritual support for patient/whānau (including accommodating return of any body parts to whānau if requested).Labour
Consideration of access to cultural/spiritual support for patient/whānau (including appropriate antenatal support programmes)Pregnancy diagnosis
Consideration of access to cultural/spiritual support for whānauAltered level of consciousness in a child
Consideration of access to cultural/spiritual support for whānau (including accommodating return of any body parts to whānau if requested post surgery)Abdominal or inguinal lump
Consideration of access to spiritual and cultural support for patients and whānauHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Consideration of health literacy needs of patient and whānauHypothyroidism
Consideration of inequities in access to health services for Māori, and in the treatment and management of medical conditionsLate pregnancy complications
Consideration of inequities in access to maternity and primary care health services for MāoriPostpartum care
Consideration of inequities in access to maternity services including Caesarean sections for MāoriLabour
Consideration of patient and family/whānau cultural and spiritual support needsInflammatory low back pain
Consideration of patient and whānau cultural and spiritual support needsMenopause
Consideration of patient and whānau needs when delivering life-changing newsPostoperative complications
Consideration of patient and whānau needs with regard to ‘breaking bad news’Epistaxis
Consideration of patient and whānau needs with regards to ‘breaking bad newsVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Consideration of patient and whānau needs with regards to ‘breaking bad newsBowel obstruction, Burns, Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, Chronic upper abdominal symptoms
Consideration of patient and whanau support needsPanhypopituitarism
Consideration that there may be sensitivity around examination of certain parts of the body and therefore asking permission to examine or touch the head and eyeAcute or chronic red eye, Sudden loss of vision and headache
Consulting with whānauKnee pain
Critical awareness of hidden curricula in medical educationTeaching
Critical understanding of the concept of 'compliance' - framing it as a function of the health professionals and system, not just the patientTeaching
Cultural aspects of terminal care, death and dyingMusculoskeletal lump
Cultural safety in examining an agitated personAgitated and combative patient
Culturally appropriate communication with whānau regarding prognosis that recognises differential health literacy needsSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Culturally appropriate means of communicationHip fracture
Culturally safe engagement with this patient and his whānauRest home resident with itching and rash
Culturally safe engagement with this patient and whānauBlisters
Culturally safe engagement with this patient, her Whānau and communitiesAlcohol, Eating disorders
Culturally safe engagement with this patient, his whānau and communitiesRectal bleeding, Acute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Culturally safe engagement with this patient, whānau and communitiesSkin tumours
Describe the characteristics that Māori ascribe to their genome and outline how this might impact on genetic research, diagnosis of genetic disorders and novel gene-based therapiesFamily with a genetic disorder
Describe the characteristics that Māori may ascribe to their genome and outline how this might impact on genetic research, diagnosis of genetic disorders and novel gene-based therapiesAdult with abdominal mass
Determine the whānau situation for the child and familyBefore school check
Differential ACC claims and rehabilitation for Māori vs non-MāoriBurns, Superficial injuries, Penetrating chest trauma
Differential ACC claims and rehabilitation for Māori vs non-Māori (for injuries in general)Dislocated joint
Differential access to primary and secondary care health services and quality of medical care for Māori with infectious diseaseInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Differential access to renal dialysis (peritoneal vs haemodialysis) by ethnicity in New ZealandChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Differential health literacyChild with respiratory distress
Differential impact of injuries on employment/income for Māori (i.e. more likely to be employed in 'manual' jobs)Penetrating chest trauma
Differential impact of injuries on employment/income for Māori (i.e. more likely to be employed in ‘manual’ jobs)Superficial injuries
Differential impact on employment/income for MāoriDislocated joint
Differential performance of the breast cancer screening programme for MāoriBreast lump and screening
Differential performance of the breast cancer screening programme for MāoriGenetic testing information
Differing risk profile for Māori (co-morbidities) for renal diseaseAcute kidney injury
Differing risk profiles for anaemia in Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in New ZealandAnaemia
Differing risk profiles for cancer in Māori compared with non-Māori in New ZealandHypercalcaemia and back pain
Differing risk profiles for Māori (and other populations such as refugee) compared with non-Māori in NZ for disorders relevant to this scenarioChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Discussion about surgery in the context of Māori values and health beliefsAcute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Disparities by ethnicity along the bowel cancer pathway from screening through to diagnosis and managementRectal bleeding
Disproportionate impact of rheumatic fever and infectious disease on Māori compared with non-Māori in New ZealandChild with sore joints
Disproportionate impact of chronic condition (such as kidney failure) and its treatment (dialysis) for MāoriChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Disproportionate impact of illness of whānau employment/income and, therefore, availability of and models of care-givingSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Disproportionate impact of rheumatic fever and infectious disease on Māori compared with non-Māori in New ZealandSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Disproportionate impact of socioeconomic deprivation on Māori including access to adequate nutrition and expensive treatmentsAnaemia
Disproportionate impact of socioeconomic deprivation on Māori including access to adequate nutrition or expensive treatments, and appropriate responsePancytopenia
Engage appropriately with whānau as well as the patient for management of chronic skin diseaseRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Engage appropriately with whānau, as well as patientPostoperative complications
Ensure a culturally safe environment and interpret symptoms in an appropriate cultural contextChronic illness in paediatrics
Ensure a culturally safe environment in life-changing scenariosPneumonia
Ensure equal access to resources, including awareness of spectacle subsidiesInfant with strabismus
Ensuring a culturally safe environment and interpretation of symptoms in an appropriate cultural contextAcute psychosis, Sore throat management in the New Zealand context
Ensuring a culturally safe environment given the potentially life changing event (child birth)Pregnancy diagnosis
Ensuring a culturally safe environment in life-changing scenarios such as palliative careDysphagia
Ensuring a culturally safe environment in mental health disorders including cultural references in suicide ideation (e.g. mataku or mate Māori)Self-harm
Ensuring a culturally safe environment in mental health disorders, including cultural references in manic thoughts/delusionsBipolar affective disorder
Ensuring a culturally safe environment in occasions when person may dieUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Ensuring a culturally safe environment in palliative careHeart failure
Ensuring a culturally safe environment; interpretation of symptoms in an appropriate cultural context including differential health literacy needs of Māori patients and whānauFood allergy in paediatrics
Ethnic differences in access to primary care between Māori and non-MāoriChild with abnormal gait
Ethnic differences in reasons for hospitalisation by diagnosis of mental illnessPersonality disorder
Ethnic differences in risk factors for respiratory conditions including inequities in immunisation coverage by ethnicity, warm housing and smoking ratesChild with respiratory distress
Ethnic differences in suicide and suicide mortality in New ZealandPersonality disorder
Ethnic disparities in 'homelessness', mental disorder and alcohol/drug misuseAgitated and combative patient
Ethnic disparities in fire-related injuriesBurns
Ethnic disparities in food allergies and in allergy testing in New ZealandCompromised airway, Food allergy in paediatrics
Ethnic disparities in rates and management of type 2 diabetes and its complicationsType 2 diabetes mellitus
Ethnic disparities in the long-term management of traumatic injury in New ZealandPenetrating chest trauma
Ethnic disparities in time to treatment for cardiac arrestOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Ethnic inequalities in disability whereby Māori have higher rates of disabilityNeck injury
Evidence of differential management of depression, with Māori less likely than non-Māori to be prescribed antidepressant medicationMajor depressive episode
Excess use of anti-Parkinson agents in Māori compared to non-MāoriTremor and parkinsonism
Explore access to care/follow-up issues for management of hand injury (e.g. deprivation, employment issues/time off work)Hand injury
Having a baby in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit; access for extended WhānauLabour
Health discrepancies between Māori and non-Māori - the barriers to healthcare for MāoriStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Health disparities for newborn Māori; higher burden of preterm birth and infectious diseaseUnwell neonate
Health disparities for young Māori children; high respiratory disease burden in children aged under 5 yearsChild with respiratory distress
Health disparities in older Māori patientsDelirium / dementia
Health literacy needs of patient and whānauFetal health, Risk assessment in early pregnancy
High Māori involvement in sport contributing to overall higher injury rates in MāoriKnee injury
Higher incidence of autoimmune disorders in Māori and Pacific communitiesMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Higher incidence of stroke and stroke risk factors (including hypertension) for MāoriSudden onset severe headache
Higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Māori and differences in underlying causeChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Higher rates of anaemia among Māori (and Pacific, ‘Other’) infants than PākehāInfant or child with pallor
Higher rates of hospitalization for epilepsy in Māori compared with non-MāoriEpilepsy / seizure
Housing issues for MāoriBurns
Identify and address barriers to access to healthcareBefore school check
Identify and cater for differential health literacy needs of Māori patients and whānauOverdose in a child or adolescent
Identify the disproportionately high prevalence of otitis media with effusion in Māori children and explain the reasons for thisGlue ear
Impact of illness on whānau employment/income/social resourcesChild with generalised swelling
Impact of socio-economic inequalities for Māori living with disabilities, including remuneration for whānau supportNeck injury
Importance of complete, high quality ethnicity data and issues in primary careClinical audit
Importance of whānau for adolescent wellbeingSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands, Sudden onset shortness of breath
Importance of whānau in decision-makingNeck injury
Incidence of nephritic, nephrotic syndromes and renal disease unequally affecting MāoriChild with generalised swelling
Incidence of suicide and accidental death for New Zealand MāoriOverdose in a child or adolescent
Inequalities in incidence, stage at diagnosis, and survival of cervical cancer between Māori and non-MāoriAbnormal cervical smear result
Inequalities in incidence, stage at diagnosis, and survival of genito-urinary cancers between Māori and non-MāoriGroin lump
Inequitable access to health care and the role of kaupapa Maori health services to improve access; telephone and travel access, remote community access if dischargedFebrile infant
Inequitable access to health care for Māori, including delays in diagnosisHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Inequities by ethnicity in adverse events during hospitalisationPreoperative assessment and management
Inequities in prostate cancer rates and mortality between Māori and non-MāoriElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori including reduced access to diagnosis, reduced staging (if cancer) and application of this to clinical decision making and managementUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementSecondary hypertension
Inequities in access to timely cancer care for Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Inequities in breast cancer incidence rates, stage at diagnosis and mortality for Māori compared with non Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementGenetic testing information
Inequities in breast cancer incidence rates, stage at diagnosis and mortality for Māori compared with non Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and management.Breast lump and screening
Inequities in hospitalisation rates for bipolar disorders between Maori and non Maori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementBipolar affective disorder
Inequities in medical/surgical error/adverse events between Māori and non-MāoriPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Inequities in perinatal mortality between Maori and non Maori and reasons for thisLabour
Inequities in rates of infectious disease and non-accidental injury for Māori compared with non-Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementInfant or child with easy bruising
Inequities in stroke outcomes for MāoriSudden onset severe headache
Involve cultural/spiritual support team when appropriatePostoperative complications
Issues around post-mortem examination in Māori patientsLate pregnancy complications
Knowledge that multiple sclerosis is less common in Māori than other patient groupsNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Low prevalence among Māori doesn’t mean zero prevalence – so still need to keep it in the differential diagnosisPainful hands in the cold
Lower anti-epileptic medication prescribed to Maori despite needEpilepsy / seizure
Lower immunisation access and rates for Māori children6 week check
Lower rates of breastfeeding among MāoriInfant or child with pallor
Lower rates of joint replacement surgery with increasing deprivationKnee pain
Managing the whenua (placenta)Labour
Māori attitudes to assisted reproductionInfertility
Māori beliefs relevant to postmortem examinationLabour
Māori perspectives on organ donationNeck injury
Māori views on organ donation, autopsy and release of body and body partsAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Māori patients with SLE have a markedly higher risk of developing lupus nephritisSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Mirimiri in the non-pharmacological management of headacheHeadache
Overcrowding/poverty and the effect of these on development of skin infections and abscessesMusculoskeletal lump
Preterm birth in Māori patientsLate pregnancy complications
Provider perceptions on factors contributing to cervical cancer disparities between Māori and non-MāoriAbnormal cervical smear result
Psychological and social impact of cancer on individuals and whānauNeck lump
Rates of severe injuries by ethnicityPenetrating chest trauma
Recognise the differing risk pattern for Māori (higher rates of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, ectopic pregnancy and tobacco use during fertile years)Infertility
Recognition of 'deficit analysis' thinking and discourse, and appropriate responses to such discourseTeaching
Recognition of disproportionate impact of obesity, rheumatic fever and infectious disease on Māori and Pacific peopleOsteomyelitis
Recognition of disproportionate impact of preventable injury in childhood on Māori and Pacific peopleFracture
Recognition of the strengths of extended whānau in support of mothers and newbornsIrritable infant
Respecting the mana and dignity of kaumātua, particularly within a medical contextKnee pain
Risk factors for mental illness in Maori (racism, age, income, deprivation)Personality disorder
Role of Māori-led services for chronic disease and smoking cessationType 2 diabetes mellitus
Rongoā and woundsSuperficial injuries
Root causes of educational disparities that result in Māori being more likely to be employed in occupational groups with a higher incidence of work-related injury (manual labour, machine operating, agriculture, fisheries)Forearm / wrist injury
Self-awareness of potential stereotypingHyperthyroidism
Self-reflective competencies: awareness and ability to recognise ones own stereotypes and biases in relation to sexual activityDysuria
Self-reflective competencies: awareness and ability to recognise own stereotypes and biases in relation to Māori patients and whānauTeaching
Self-reflective competencies: awareness of and ability to recognise own assumptions /stereotypes in relation to Māori patients and whanau, or youthReactive arthritis
Self-reflective competencies: awareness of possible personal stereotypes/assumptions around Māori and about child abuseFracture
Sensitivity in use language with different cultural/ethnic groups: e.g. 'eye turning in' is preferable to 'crossed eye' when describing esotropiaDiplopia
Smoking prevalence among Māori adults - culturally appropriate smoking cessation programmesStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Strengths of whānau - support of extended family, including older family members, in caring for preschoolersBefore school check
Strengths of whānau; learning care of newborn with support of extended family and older whānau6 week check
Suicide rates in Māori youth and young peopleSelf-harm
The importance of Māori access to kaupapa Māori servicesSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
The role of kaupapa Māori health services in health promotion and reducing health inequalitiesIrritable infant
The role of kaupapa Māori services in the management of long-term conditionsChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
The role of whānau in eliciting past historyMedically unexplained physical symptoms
The role of whānau in the patient with dementia; appropriate engagement and consultation with whānauDelirium / dementia
To consider the multidimensional nature of pain and its impact on wairuaInflammatory low back pain
Traditional ideas and beliefs that may exist amongst Māori eldersKnee pain
Under-treatment of pain in minority patientsNon-specific back pain
Understand context of educational inequities for Māori children: potentially relevant to aetiology (e.g. discrimination)Chronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Understand context of educational inequities for Māori children: potentially relevant to both aetiology (e.g. discrimination) and effects (absenteeism more of an issue among Māori children, impacts on educational achievement)Child or adolescent with a headache
Understand health literacy needs of patients and whānauHyperthyroidism
Understand inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori compared with non-Māori, and implication of this to clinical decision making and managementChild with sore joints
Understand inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori compared with non-Māori, and implications of this to clinical decision making and managementSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Understand inequities in access to health services, quality of medical care and health outcomes for Māori (and other disadvantaged populations) compared with non-Māori in NZPreoperative assessment and management
Understand inequities in access to social and health services care for different ethnic groupsChronic illness in paediatrics , Food allergy in paediatrics
Understand reasons for low contact with mental health services for MāoriPersonality disorder
Understand the barriers to care that face whānau for accessing antenatal careUnwell neonate
Understand the role of kaupapa Māori health policies, services and research in reducing inequalitiesPneumonia
Understanding different ways of defining the Māori population; e.g. ethnicity, ancestryClinical audit
Understanding how reduced access to health services and inadequate quality of psychiatric care for Māori, contributes to poor outcomesBipolar affective disorder
Understanding inequities in access to health (including oncology) services and quality of cancer care for Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementAbdominal or inguinal lump
Understanding of disproportionate impact of socioeconomic deprivation on MāoriSkin and soft tissue infection
Understanding of equity including the concepts of vertical and horizontal equityClinical audit
Understanding of inequities in access to cancer services and quality of medical care for Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementBowel obstruction
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for MāoriInfant or child with a murmur
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori (e.g. higher rates of surgical error for Māori females compared with non-Māori females);application to clinical decision making and managementAcute abdominal pain
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori and application of this to clinical decision-makingHeadache
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori including reduced likelihood of receiving surgical intervention, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementAcute chest pain
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori including screening/prevention of rheumatic heart disease, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementValvular heart disease
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori presenting with chest pain/cardiovascular disease, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementStable angina
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori with long term conditions and disability, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementSudden loss of vision and headache
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementInfant with jaundice, Rash on extensor surfaces and joint pains, Epistaxis, SLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands, Pimples and rash on the face, Burns, Sudden painless loss of vision, Obesity, Haemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray, Upper respiratory tract symptoms
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and management (mobile lithotripsy buses to rural centres)Flank pain and dysuria
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori, and application of this to clinical decision-making and managementChronic shortness of breath, Chronic sputum production
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori, and application of this to clinical quality improvementClinical audit, Teaching
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori, including delay in specialist referralSwollen and tender joints
Understanding of inequities in access to health services and quality of medical care for Māori, including less likelihood for localised cancer or cancer staging and application of this to clinical decision making and managementDysphagia
Understanding of inequities in access to health services, quality of medical care and cancer outcomes for Māori compared with non-Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementGross haematuria
Understanding of inequities in access to mental health services and quality of psychiatric care for Māori, and how this contributes to higher rates of hospitalisation for psychosis for MaoriAcute psychosis
Understanding of inequities in bowel cancer outcomes for Māori compared with non-Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementBowel obstruction
Understanding of inequities in cardiovascular disease outcomes for Māori compared with non-Māori including higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and higher mortality; application of this to clinical decision making and managementAcute chest pain
Understanding of inequities in eye related conditions and their outcomes for Māori compared with non Māori (e.g. higher rates of diabetes-related eye complications), and application of this to clinical decision making and managementAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Understanding of inequities in health outcomes for Māori compared with non-MāoriClinical audit
Understanding of inequities in health outcomes for Māori compared with non-Māori including liver cancer rates 4 times higher in Māori than non-Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementPatient with jaundice
Understanding of inequities in health outcomes for Māori compared with non-Māori, and determinants of these inequitiesTeaching
Understanding of inequities in liver-related health outcomes for Māori compared with non-Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementChronic liver disease
Understanding of inequities in outcomes for Māori with heart failure compared with non-Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementHeart failure
Understanding of inequities in rheumatic heart disease outcomes for Māori compared with non-Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementFever and a new murmur
Understanding of inequities in the incidence, management and outcomes of myocardial infarction and gout for Māori compared with non-Māori, and application of this to clinical decision making and managementGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori cancer and health policies, services and research in reducing inequalitiesPatient with jaundice
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori cancer services and research in reducing inequalitiesElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori health policies, services and research in reducing heart failure inequalitiesHeart failure
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori health policies, services and research in reducing cancer inequalitiesDysphagia
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori health policies, services and research in reducing cardiovascular disease and gout inequalitiesGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori health policies, services and research in reducing cardiovascular disease inequalitiesStable angina
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori health policies, services and research in reducing inequalities (e.g. meningitis vaccine policy/programme, domestic violence and parenting programmes for whānau)Infant or child with easy bruising
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori health policies, services and research in reducing inequalities such as the Unequal Treatment Research at Eru Pomare and the Heart Guide Aotearoa service for cardiac rehabilitationAcute chest pain
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori health policies, services and research in reducing rheumatic heart disease inequalitiesValvular heart disease, Fever and a new murmur
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori health services and research in reducing cancer inequalitiesGross haematuria
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori health services, particularly diabetes programmesType 1 diabetes mellitus
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori mental health policies, services and research in reducing inequalitiesAcute psychosis
Understanding of the role of kaupapa Māori screening programmes in reducing inequalitiesGenetic testing information, Breast lump and screening
Understanding the barriers to care that whānau face such as impact of caring for sick child for working parentsChild with respiratory distress
Understanding the culture of medicine and awareness of own socialisation into that cultureTeaching
Understanding the importance of whānau-centred care and Māori attitudes toward residential careDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Understanding the mana held by Māori eldersDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Understanding the place of kaumātua among MāoriDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Understanding the role of kaupapa Māori cancer services and researchAdult with abdominal mass
Understanding the role of kaupapa Māori services and research (e.g. Toi Tu service in Tamaki Makaurau)Itching child
Unequal access to and quality of diabetes care for Māori compared with non-MāoriType 1 diabetes mellitus
Unequal burden of infectious diseases on MāoriFebrile infant
Unequal treatment for the management of cardiovascular diseaseOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Whānau care giving and reimbursementDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Whānau responsibilities of the patientHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Whānau role in ‘breaking bad news’ including impact on fertilityAbnormal cervical smear result
Whānau role in ‘breaking bad news’ including impact on fertilityGroin lump
Wider determinants and diabetes including disproportionate impact of socioeconomic deprivation on MāoriType 2 diabetes mellitus
Working with Māori providersMedically unexplained physical symptoms
New Zealand Immunisation Schedule6 week check
Screening for intimate partner violence and mental health problems during pregnancyPregnancy diagnosis
Smoking as a risk factor for late pregnancy complicationsLate pregnancy complications
Cardiovascular risk factors - elevated blood pressure, diabetes, hyperlipidaemiaSudden painless loss of vision
Smoking cessation programmesContraception
Smoking cessationInflammatory low back pain
Smoking cessation programsAbnormal cervical smear result
Access to clean water and public healthcare; remote and farming community water contaminationInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Access to health services for diagnosis and treatment of valvular heart disease: promotion of prompt and effective careValvular heart disease
Access to healthcare resources: implantable defibrillatorsArrhythmias
Access to local or national multidisciplinary neurodevelopment and/or child psychiatry servicesBefore school check
Access to public hospital specialist eye careDiplopia
Access to specialist paediatric surgery services and emergency airway support in New ZealandNeonatal stridor
Access to timely treatment/referral; provision of primary percutaneous coronary intervention for patients in regional-rural locationsAcute chest pain
Accident prevention/screening for safety in the home including domestic violenceAltered level of consciousness in a child
Adult health consequences of paediatric diseaseChronic sputum production
Adult immunisation programmePneumonia
Advocacy role of medical professionalsAlcohol
Age-appropriate immunisation statusChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Aids to smoking cessation: what is working?Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Alcohol and recreational drug use in young people in New ZealandOverdose in a child or adolescent
Antenatal care and optimizing maternal healthLabour
Antenatal care structure and providers in New Zealand (lead maternity carers)Unwell neonate
Antibiotic stewardshipPneumonia
Appreciation of increased incidence of family violence during pregnancyVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Approaches to prevention of obesity and diabetes: strengths and limitations of eachType 2 diabetes mellitus
Appropriate and sensitive communication with contacts; contact tracingRest home resident with itching and rash
Appropriate career advice to patients with skin diseaseAdult eczema
Appropriate prescribing of antibiotics in the communityFebrile infant
Assessment and sensitivities/checklist and referralInfant or child with easy bruising
Audiology and newborn screeningBefore school check
Availability of health and educational services in New Zealand for people with disabilitiesChronic illness in paediatrics
Awareness of impact of socioeconomic deprivation on Māori and others (e.g. burden on families who have to travel to tertiary centre to receive treatment)Infant or child with a murmur
Awareness of potential co-morbidities such as metabolic syndrome, tobacco consumption and earlier mortalityAcute psychosis
Awareness of resistance as a potential result of antibiotic treatment; relationship between antimicrobial consumption and prevalence of antibiotic resistance at individual and community levelUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Awareness of safety of medications in early pregnancy and their use in reproductive age womenHypothyroidism
Awareness of social and demographic determinants of infectious diseaseFever and headache, Fever and adenopathy
Awareness of the difficulties in eradicating scabies from institutionsRest home resident with itching and rash
Awareness of the general features of the coronary heart disease epidemic in New ZealandOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Awareness of WHO/UK Medical Eligibility Criteria risk stratification for contraceptive choicesContraception
Benefits of breast feeding for women and their babiesPostpartum care
Breast cancer screening; rationale, requirements for success and performance of the Breast Screen Aotearoa programmeGenetic testing information, Breast lump and screening
Broad determinants of health approach to determinants of overweight and obesity (Dahlgren and Whitehead)Childhood obesity
Burden of alcohol abuse on Emergency Department services in New ZealandHand injury
Burden of disease attributable to alcoholAlcohol
Burden of disease attributable to smokingType 2 diabetes mellitus
Burden of post-operative complications to societyPostoperative complications
Burden on families who have to travel to tertiary centre to receive treatmentLabour
Cardiac arrest in the community: high risk groups, prognosis, opportunities for preventionOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Causes of heart failure and opportunities for preventionHeart failure
Child and maternal health care providers in New ZealandInfant with jaundice
Chronic acquired disability and ongoing cost of injuries to communityNeck injury
Chronic disease management and social implicationsTremor and parkinsonism
Classify cardiovascular risk factors into modifiable and non-modifiableStable angina
Clustering of eating disorders, influence of media on body shape and attitudes towards weightEating disorders
Common causes of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss amongst patients presenting to primary careHearing loss
Communicating risk - sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratiosElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Community and national services available for people with hearing impairment including hearing aids and cochlear implantsCongenital hearing loss
Community based programmes that can help diabetics to manage their diseaseAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Community management of asthmaChild with respiratory distress
Community reporting of adverse drug reactions: Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring (CARM)Facial swelling and itchy rash
Community strategies for the control of tuberculosis: immunisation, contact tracing, effective treatment measures including directly observed therapy (DOT)Haemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Compensation of occupationally-acquired illnessWorsening shortness of breath
Consequences of high Caesarean section rate on maternal and perinatal outcomesVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Cost of overweight and obesity across the life courseChildhood obesity
Cost to health boards of universal treatment for age-related macular degenerationGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Cost to individual and community of blindness and severe visual impairmentGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Cost-benefit analysis of drugs used to treat dementiaDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Cost-benefit of bariatric surgeryDaytime sleepiness
Cost-effective prevention of coronary heart diseaseStable angina
Cost-effectiveness of heart failure treatmentHeart failure
Cost-effectiveness of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugsSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands, Swollen and tender joints
Cost-effectiveness of interventionsAlcohol
Cost-effectiveness of screening for H. pyloriUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Costs and benefits of PSA testsElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Costs of unnecessary population screeningHeadache
Cultural differences in the perception of menopauseMenopause
Current screening initiatives for rheumatic fever and options for reducing rates in New Zealand contextChild with sore joints
Debate the pros and cons of wider distribution of defibrillators in community settingsOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Definition of a disease outbreakInfectious disease outbreak
Delivering sustainable comprehensive health services to rural communitiesEpilepsy / seizure
Demographic projections for New Zealand: age, ethnicity, disabilityDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Demographics of commonly inherited conditions in the New Zealand populationFamily with a genetic disorder
Describe the global burden of obesity, risk factors and lifestyle associated with obesityObesity
Design of observational clinical studies; case-control, cohort6 week check
Determinants of smokingTeaching
Development of guidelines and protocolsOut of hospital cardiac arrest
Developmental delay and cerebral palsy: impact on the health and education systemLabour
Dialysis and transplantation in New Zealand; access to servicesChild with generalised swelling
Difference between antenatal screening and diagnostic test for fetal abnormalityFetal health
Distribution of obesity in the New Zealand population: possible explanations and implications for health careType 2 diabetes mellitus
Economic and social impacts of fatigueChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Effect of prevalence on predictive values for diagnostic testsDizziness and vertigo
Effect of women delaying childbearing on fertilityInfertility
Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of screening tests for bowel cancer and gynaecological cancers in the general populationAdult with abdominal mass
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of anti-TNF treatmentsInflammatory low back pain
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new treatments for epilepsyEpilepsy / seizure
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSA screening in the general populationElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of renal replacement therapy optionsChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening for and treating osteoporosisHeadache, morning stiffness and shoulder pain
Employability and sickness benefits - leading to increased deprivationNon-specific back pain
Endocarditis prophylaxisFever and a new murmur
Environmental and lifestyle risk factors for various cancersHypercalcaemia and back pain
Environmental exposures and lung diseaseWorsening shortness of breath
Epidemiologic differences in growth (WHO growth charts vs NZ)Failure to thrive
Epidemiology and health effects of obesityDaytime sleepiness
Epidemiology and prevention of sexually transmitted infections, gallstones and urinary tract infectionAcute abdominal pain
Epidemiology and prevention of sexually transmitted infectionsContraception
Epidemiology and prognosis of renal calculus diseaseFlank pain and dysuria
Epidemiology in New Zealand of otitis media with effusionGlue ear
Epidemiology in New Zealand of inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and coeliac disease and burden of these conditions (in New Zealand and globally)Chronic bowel motility problems
Epidemiology in New Zealand of malignant hyperpyrexiaPreoperative assessment and management
Epidemiology in New Zealand of MRSA, VRE, ESBLPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Epidemiology in New Zealand of postoperative complicationsPostoperative care
Epidemiology in New Zealand of thromboembolic disease occurring in hospitalised patientsPostoperative complications
Epidemiology New Zealand of accidental and non-accidental mortality and morbidity in childrenBefore school check
Epidemiology of tonsillitis in adultsUpper airway disease
Epidemiology of rheumatic feverFever and a new murmur
Epidemiology of dysphagia; risk factors and prevalence of underlying disordersDysphagia
Epidemiology of acute respiratory illness in childrenChild with respiratory distress
Epidemiology of obesity; how to modify the risk of adverse outcomesRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Epidemiology of jaundice in newbornsInfant with jaundice
Epidemiology of rheumatic fever; New Zealand rates in international context; rheumatic fever registerChild with sore joints
Epidemiology of eating disordersEating disorders
Epidemiology of personality disordersPersonality disorder
Epidemiology of anxiety disorders, hypnosedative prescription and useAnxiety disorder
Epidemiology of delirium/acute confusion state, schizophrenia, substance abuse, substance withdrawal, herpes simplex virus, meningitisAgitated and combative patient
Epidemiology of dementia and deliriumDelirium / dementia
Epidemiology of substance abuseBipolar affective disorder
Epidemiology of schizophreniaAcute psychosis
Epidemiology of bipolar affective disorderBipolar affective disorder
Epidemiology of acne vulgaris (prevalent in adolescence but also occurs in adults)Pimples and rash on the face
Epidemiology of rosacea (usually affects those over 30 years but can affect younger individuals)Pimples and rash on the face
Epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis, risk factors, prognosis, time trendsSwollen and tender joints
Epidemiology of SLE: age, gender, prevalenceSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Epidemiology of systemic sclerosis: age, gender, ethnicityPainful hands in the cold
Epidemiology of ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthropathies including ethnic differencesInflammatory low back pain
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Epidemiology of asthma and atopy/anaphylaxisSudden onset shortness of breath
Epidemiology of syncope and atrial fibrillationArrhythmias
Epidemiology of testicular torsion, epididymitis and cancer (age, gender, prevalence, likelihood of presentation)Acute severe testicular pain
Epidemiology of leukaemias: age, gender and prevalencePancytopenia
Epidemiology of anaemia: common scenarios and population distributionAnaemia
Epidemiology of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and lymphomasLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Epidemiology of lymphoma and thyroid cancerNeck lump
Epidemiology of myeloma: age and prevalencePancytopenia
Epidemiology of myeloproliferative neoplasmsPolycythaemia
Epidemiology of deep vein thrombosis: risk factors, associated conditions, prevention and awarenessDeep vein thrombosis
Epidemiology of hyponatraemia and which populations are most at riskHyponatraemia
Epidemiology of pre-eclampsia and its recurrence riskLate pregnancy complications
Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitusType 2 diabetes mellitus
Epidemiology of colorectal cancer in New ZealandBowel obstruction
Epidemiology of migraine/headache and social impactHeadache
Epidemiology of anginaStable angina
Epidemiology of H. pylori: prevalence, associations, treatmentChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Epidemiology of N. meningitidis infection in New ZealandFever and headache
Epidemiology of S. pneumoniae infection in New ZealandFever and headache
Epidemiology of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA): age, gender, prevalence, screeningAcute kidney injury
Epidemiology of abuseFalls and collapses
Epidemiology of acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, pericarditis and myocarditisAcute chest pain
Epidemiology of acute limb ischaemiaAcutely painful limb
Epidemiology of Addison's disease and tuberculosisAdrenal crisis
Epidemiology of alcohol abuseAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Epidemiology of alcohol-related harmHand injury
Epidemiology of asthmaChild with respiratory distress
Epidemiology of atrial fibrillationAcutely painful limb
Epidemiology of back painNon-specific back pain
Epidemiology of bowel and gynaecological cancers; identify genetic, environmental and lifestyle risk factors for cancer developmentAdult with abdominal mass
Epidemiology of breast cancer: lifetime risk, time trends, risk factors, opportunities for preventionGenetic testing information, Breast lump and screening
Epidemiology of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosisChronic sputum production
Epidemiology of burnsBurns
Epidemiology of cancer and its impact on the societyHypercalcaemia and back pain
Epidemiology of cellulitis, MRSA infectionsSkin and soft tissue infection
Epidemiology of cervical and endometrial malignancyHeavy menstrual periods
Epidemiology of cervical cancerAbnormal cervical smear result
Epidemiology of CHD: causes, risks, screening for in neonatesInfant or child with a murmur
Epidemiology of common age-related eye diseases that may profoundly affect vision: age-related macular degeneration, chronic open angle glaucoma, cataract, and diabetic retinopathyGradual deterioration in visual acuity over time
Epidemiology of congenital cataractInfant with an altered light reflex
Epidemiology of deliberate self-harm and domestic violenceSuperficial injuries
Epidemiology of dementiaPneumonia
Epidemiology of depression and alcohol abuse in older peopleMajor depressive episode
Epidemiology of diabetes insipidusDiabetes insipidus
Epidemiology of diffuse lung disease subtypesWorsening shortness of breath
Epidemiology of dizziness, including prevalence of serious pathologyDizziness and vertigo
Epidemiology of Down syndrome and other common chromosomal and congenital fetal abnormalitiesFetal health
Epidemiology of dyspepsia, pernicious anaemia, gastric cancer, gastro-oesophageal reflux diseaseChronic upper abdominal symptoms
Epidemiology of early cognitive declineSuperficial injuries
Epidemiology of EBV and CMV infection in New ZealandFever and adenopathy
Epidemiology of epilepsyEpilepsy / seizure
Epidemiology of essential hypertension and gestational hypertensionSecondary hypertension
Epidemiology of fallsFalls and collapses
Epidemiology of falls and impact of fractured neck of femur on individualHip fracture
Epidemiology of falls and strategies of preventing fallsShoulder pain
Epidemiology of genetic haemochromatosisHaemochromatosis
Epidemiology of gestational diabetesDiabetes in pregnancy
Epidemiology of group B streptococcal disease and screening in pregnancyUnwell neonate
Epidemiology of gynaecological cancers and their risk factors (obesity, human papilloma virus, polycystic ovarian syndrome, unopposed oestrogen use)Postmenopausal bleeding
Epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, HIVNeedlestick injury
Epidemiology of HIV infection in New Zealand and internationallyFever and adenopathy
Epidemiology of hypertension and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in pregnancyRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Epidemiology of hyperthyroidismHyperthyroidism
Epidemiology of hypothyroidismHypothyroidism
Epidemiology of infectious diarrhoea in New Zealand and worldwideDiarrhoea
Epidemiology of infertilityInfertility
Epidemiology of influenzaUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Epidemiology of inherited coagulation abnormalitiesInfant or child with easy bruising
Epidemiology of injuries for the major sports in New ZealandDislocated joint
Epidemiology of intellectual disabilityChronic illness in paediatrics
Epidemiology of intracranial bleedingSudden onset severe headache
Epidemiology of intracranial tumours, including prognosis and survivalSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Epidemiology of liver diseaseChronic liver disease
Epidemiology of lung cancerPupil abnormality, Haemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Epidemiology of medically unexplained symptomsMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Epidemiology of miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease and their recurrence risksGynaecological abdominal pain
Epidemiology of motor vehicle crashesNeck injury
Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis and motor neuron diseaseNeuromuscular disease / generalised muscle weakness
Epidemiology of mumps: likelihood of testicular involvement (age, gender, prevalence)Acute severe testicular pain
Epidemiology of nasal squamous cell carcinoma, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, epistaxis, nasal polypEpistaxis
Epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, PCOSObesity
Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnoea and obesity hyperventilation syndromeDaytime sleepiness
Epidemiology of occupational lung diseaseWorsening shortness of breath
Epidemiology of other substance abuseAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
Epidemiology of other common hereditary diseasesHaemochromatosis
Epidemiology of outbreaks - common infections and common populationsInfectious disease outbreak
Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer and gallstonesPatient with jaundice
Epidemiology of PCOSAmenorrhea
Epidemiology of peptic ulcer disease and chronic liver diseaseUpper gastrointestinal bleeding
Epidemiology of perianal diseasePerianal pathology
Epidemiology of peripheral vascular diseaseAcutely painful limb
Epidemiology of pneumoniaPneumonia
Epidemiology of POFAmenorrhea
Epidemiology of polypharmacyAccidental overdose
Epidemiology of postnatal mental health disorders and postpartum haemorrhagePostpartum care
Epidemiology of preterm birthLate pregnancy complications
Epidemiology of prostatismElevation of prostate-specific antigen
Epidemiology of psoriasisRash on extensor surfaces and joint pains
Epidemiology of pyrexia in infancyFebrile infant
Epidemiology of rheumatic fever; New Zealand rates in international context; rheumatic fever registerSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Epidemiology of road traffic crashes including alcohol and drugs; strategies for preventionPenetrating chest trauma
Epidemiology of secondary hypertensionSecondary hypertension
Epidemiology of self-harm methods and completed suicideSelf-harm
Epidemiology of serious food allergy: time trends, risk factors, opportunities for preventionCompromised airway, Food allergy in paediatrics
Epidemiology of shoulder dislocationDislocated joint
Epidemiology of skin cancersSkin tumours
Epidemiology of spinal stenosis, intermittent claudication, peripheral neuropathy, ulcers and varicose veinsChronic limb pain
Epidemiology of sporting injuriesKnee injury
Epidemiology of STIsReactive arthritis
Epidemiology of STIs and urinary tract infectionsDysuria
Epidemiology of stroke and TIA in New ZealandStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Epidemiology of stroke in those with atrial fibrillationArrhythmias
Epidemiology of structural heart diseaseValvular heart disease
Epidemiology of substance abuse and awareness of different substance abuse in different populationsAcute psychosis
Epidemiology of teenage pregnancy and abortionPregnancy diagnosis
Epidemiology of thalassaemias: ethnicity, age, gender and prevalenceAnaemia
Epidemiology of tuberculosisNeck lump
Epidemiology of tuberculosis in New ZealandHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (HONK)Acute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus: change over time, including managementType 1 diabetes mellitus
Epidemiology of upper respiratory tract infectionsUpper respiratory tract symptoms
Epidemiology of upper respiratory tract malignancyUpper airway disease
Epidemiology of urinary incontinenceUrinary incontinence in women
Epidemiology of work 'accidents' and road traffic crashesDaytime sleepiness
Epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis of chronic kidney disease, including trends over time and by ethnic group, impact of ageing population and metabolic syndromeChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Epidemiology, risk factors, prognosis for strokeSudden onset severe headache
Ethical, social, and medical issues around genetic screeningAdult with abdominal mass
Ethics and economics of treatment of infectious diseases in developing countriesFebrile returning traveller
Ethics of access to healthcare resources for expensive therapiesPancytopenia
Ethics of treatment, patient-informed choice and impact of quality of lifeLymphadenopathy and splenomegaly
Evaluation of risks to children in New Zealand household (child-proof containers)Overdose in a child or adolescent
Family screening for polycystic kidney disease, including ethicsGross haematuria
Forensic medicineBurns
Global burden of infectious disease (including malaria)Febrile returning traveller
Global health perspective of diarrhoea; leading cause of death and hospitalisation in childrenInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Global health: diffuse lung disease in developing countriesWorsening shortness of breath
Global health; causes and epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma in different countriesChronic shortness of breath
Global health; epidemiology of smoking and lung cancerHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Global health; epidemiology of tuberculosis, HIV and tuberculosis (including drug-resistant tuberculosis)Haemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Growing burden of osteoarthritis care in an ageing populationKnee pain
Hand hygiene for community and healthcare workers; personal protective equipment (PPE)Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Health and economic implications of increasing operative deliveriesLabour
Health and safety in the homeUpper airway disease
Health and social services for care of those who have suffered severe head injuryHead trauma
Health benefits and risks of participation in organised sportsHead trauma
Health economics of the various treatments for heavy menstrual bleedingHeavy menstrual periods
Health problems that disproportionately affect Māori; socio-economic deprivation and other factors (e.g. poorer access to and quality of health care)Child with respiratory distress
Health promotion of breast feedingFailure to thrive
High incidence of infections/rheumatic fever in New ZealandOsteomyelitis
High risk populations and occupationsAlcohol and drug dependence disorders
HIV screening in pregnancyUnwell neonate
Homelessness: reasons, support programmes, discriminationAgitated and combative patient
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): risks, benefits, costs, regulationBreast lump and screening
Housing as a determinant of health; overcrowding, quality of the indoor environmentChild with respiratory distress
How to reduce risk of serious injury in contact sportsHead trauma
Human papilloma virus vaccination programmeDysuria
IgE-mediated food allergy is common (10% of children <5 yrs)Food allergy in paediatrics
Immigrant health and screening for genetic traits (e.g. G6PD deficiency and thalassaemia traits in Asian/Mediterranean families)Infant or child with pallor
Immunisation and vaccination uptakeFever and headache
Immunisation schedule in New ZealandNeonatal stridor
Immunisation status of adults in New ZealandHand injury
Immunisation: vaccine-preventable causes of arthritis (rubella, hepatitis B)Child with sore joints
Impact and incidence of atopy in New Zealand childrenFood allergy in paediatrics
Impact of low socio-economic status on attendance at follow-up clinics and adherence to therapeutic regimensAnnual eye screen for patient with diabetes
Impact on health services, including time off work and cost to ACCNon-specific back pain
Impact on healthcare budgets and expendituresMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Impact on healthcare systems including primary and other levels of careMedically unexplained physical symptoms
Implications and prevalence of unplanned pregnanciesContraception
Implications for type I diabetes mellitus in certain occupations including commercial drivingAcute presentation of diabetes mellitus
Importance of smoking cessation in the householdChild with respiratory distress
Importance of antimicrobial stewardship and use of the narrowest spectrum antibioticSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Importance of communication back to GPGynaecological abdominal pain
Importance of hospital 'morbidity and mortality' meeting and clinical governancePostoperative complications
Importance of pre-pregnancy counselling and planning pregnancy in women with diabetesDiabetes in pregnancy
Incidence and age normals of nocturnal enuresis in the populationChild with disorder of elimination
Incidence of antibiotic allergySore throat management in the New Zealand context
Incidence of medical intervention in labour and birthLabour
Incidence of renal anomaly, urinary infections in children by age group, male/female differencesChild with disorder of elimination
Increasing costs of sporting injuries in New ZealandKnee injury
Increasing number of osteoporotic fractures with ageing population and costs to the health systemHip fracture
Indications for referral for tonsillectomy for recurrent sore throatSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Individual and population prevention and intervention strategies to reduce the burden of the consequences of overweight and obesityChildhood obesity
Infection control and prevention of transmission of respiratory pathogensPneumonia
Infection control mechanisms for respiratory pathogensHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Infectious disease surveillanceDiarrhoea
Influence of nutrition on maternal and foetal healthChild with abnormal gait
Influence of tobacco smoking and occupational exposure on the epidemiology of genitourinary tract cancersGross haematuria
Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination programmesChronic shortness of breath
Investigation of outbreak, composition of Oral Rehydration Solution (WHO formula)Infant with vomiting and diarrhoea
Know the common reasons for caregivers not immunising their child and any contraindications for immunising6 week check
Knowledge of antenatal screening programmesInfant or child with a murmur
Knowledge of New Zealand National Poisons service/ websiteOverdose in a child or adolescent
Knowledge of screening and immunisation programmesClinical audit
Knowledge of the commonness of many benign masses; awareness of rare malignant musculoskeletal tumoursMusculoskeletal lump
Knowledge of the Newborn Hearing Screening ProgrammeCongenital hearing loss
Knowledge of the “Never Shake A Baby” national campaignIrritable infant
Legal guidelines for prescribing contraception particularly to under 16 year olds or vulnerable women groups or those incapable of informed choiceContraception
Legal requirements regarding seatbelt and car restraints for children and infantsBefore school check
Legislation around sun bedsSkin tumours
Life course associations between childhood overweight and chronic diseaseChildhood obesity
Lifestyle modification in obese women to reduce risks of subsequent diabetesDiabetes in pregnancy
Lifestyle/behaviours that may impact the progression of diabetes related complicationsType 1 diabetes mellitus
Long-term care and public health implications of rheumatic fever and heart disease; potential for community, primary care and school-based prevention programmesChild with sore joints
Long-term effects of prematurityLate pregnancy complications
Long-term health care and educational needs of children with Down SyndromeFetal health
Long-term sequelae: impairment, disability and handicapHead trauma
Major obstacles to implementationAlcohol
Management of sore throatChild with sore joints
Management, audit and monitoring of chronic arthritisSwollen and tender joints
Management, audit and monitoring of chronic autoimmune diseaseSLE / fatigue / pain and swelling in the hands
Maternal exposure to cardiovascular teratogen (anticonvulsants/rubella/alcohol)Infant or child with a murmur
Models of antenatal care in New ZealandRisk assessment in early pregnancy
Models of maternity care in New ZealandPregnancy diagnosis
Monitoring and success of cervical screening programmesHeavy menstrual periods
Morbidity and mortality rates associated with eating disordersEating disorders
Most common world population causes for anaemia (sickle cell, thalassaemia and iron deficiency)Infant or child with pallor
National immunisation schedule and preventable illness by vaccinationInfant with vomiting and diarrhoea
National newborn screening for genetic diseaseChronic sputum production
New Zealand cervical screening programmesHeavy menstrual periods
New Zealand hepatitis B vaccination guidelinesChronic liver disease
New Zealand immunisation programmeUpper airway disease
New Zealand Immunisation ScheduleBefore school check, Upper respiratory tract symptoms
New Zealand meningococcal disease epidemiology typing, preventative strategies (including vaccinations)Infant or child with easy bruising
New Zealand pregnancy screening programmeFetal health
New Zealand vaccination programmeNeedlestick injury
Newborn screening for metabolic disorders (Guthrie card)6 week check
Non-accidental injury, family violence and child protection servicesInfant or child with easy bruising
Non-pharmacological methods of preventing urinary tract infectionsDysuria
Normal age-appropriate immunisation scheduleChild with respiratory distress
Notifiable diseaseDiarrhoea
Notifiable diseases and protocolsInfectious disease outbreak
Notifiable infectious diseasesDysuria
Notifiable infectious diseases: process, contact tracing, treatment and prophylaxisFebrile returning traveller
Notification requirements relating to epidemics of viral conjunctivitisWatery eye in an infant
Obesity epidemic, obesigenic environment and relationship to broader determinants of healthObesity
Occupation restrictions in relation to acute or chronic illnessDiarrhoea
Opportunities to reduce disability caused by hearing lossHearing loss
Opportunity to assess health and discuss screening for chronic diseases relevant to older womenMenopause
Optimising maternal health for pregnancy, including folate and iodine supplementation, cessation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs, and optimal gestational weight gain through diet and exercisePregnancy diagnosis
Options for prevention of disease and injury caused by alcoholAlcohol
Organisation of breast care servicesPostpartum care
Organisation of primary health care in New Zealand - what is a PHO, how it is funded and governedAAA screening
Origins of cardiovascular risk chartsStable angina
Origins of obesityType 2 diabetes mellitus
Outbreak investigation and managementInfectious disease outbreak
Paediatric orthopaedic and acute surgical services in NZFracture
Paediatric specialist services in New Zealand (e.g. orthopaedics, rheumatology, cardiology)Child with sore joints
Paediatric surgical and transplant services in New ZealandInfant with jaundice
Patient advocacyChronic sputum production
Pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy as risk factors for infertilityGynaecological abdominal pain
Pelvic inflammatory disease as risk factor for ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic painGynaecological abdominal pain
Pharmaco-epidemiology relevant to asthmaSudden onset shortness of breath
Pharmacoepidemiology of antidepressants and hypnosedativesMajor depressive episode
Pharmacogenetic screening for susceptibility to drug reactions where neededBlisters
Population groups most severely affected by heart failureHeart failure
Population health measures to control obesity and effectiveness (promotion of breast feeding, maternal nutrition, healthy eating habits, regulation of food industry and advertising)Osteomyelitis
Population methods to reduce suicide and overdosesSelf-harm
Population-wide approaches to control of cardiovascular risk factorsStable angina
Poverty, health literacy and nutritionInfant or child with pallor
Pre-pregnancy counselling to prevent diseases with clear causation: neural tube defectsFetal health
Present and future age structure of New Zealand populationUnexplained loss of consciousness
Prevalence and impact of gout including sequelae such as renal calculi, renal failure and gout arthritisGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factorsStable angina
Prevalence of undescended testisGroin lump
Prevalence, risks and resources for non-accidental injury and resources; strategies for preventionFracture
Preventable accidents and safety in the home and communityFracture
Preventative health and health promotion needs for adolescentsSudden onset shortness of breath
Preventative health in particular sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) prevention (and awareness of New Zealand literature on this); accident prevention in the home; informing parents of the recognition of the sick infant6 week check
Preventative health regarding safety from accidents in the home, driveway and around water for preschoolersBefore school check
Preventative strategies in the homeOverdose in a child or adolescent
Prevention campaigns: sun safety informationSkin tumours
Prevention of otitis media with effusion related complications e.g. hearing loss, language impairmentGlue ear
Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (safer sex)Acute severe testicular pain
Prevention of HIV infectionFever and adenopathy
Prevention of infertility in women of reproductive ageAcute abdominal pain
Prevention of meningococcal diseaseFever and headache
Prevention of mumps (MMR vaccination)Acute severe testicular pain
Prevention of noise induced hearing lossHearing loss
Prevention of rheumatic heart disease: potential strategies, proven interventionsValvular heart disease
Prevention of the spread of infectious diseasesChronic liver disease
Prevention strategies and number needed to treat principles in stroke preventionStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Prevention strategies to target those at risk of suicideSelf-harm
Prevention, education and awareness related to herniasGroin lump
Prevention: cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndromeGout / acute pain and swelling of knee
Prevention: surveillance of STIs, safer sex, current recommendations on Chlamydia screeningReactive arthritis
Preventive strategies for work-related injuriesForearm / wrist injury
Primary and secondary prevention of rheumatic feverFever and a new murmur
Primary and secondary prevention strategies for coronary artery diseaseAcute chest pain
Principles of primary and secondary preventionType 2 diabetes mellitus
Projections for life expectancy and years lived with disabilityUnexplained loss of consciousness
Promotion of breast feeding6 week check, Irritable infant
Providing additional support for the child with learning difficultiesDisruptive behaviour disorder
Providing support and information to parents with practical management strategiesDisruptive behaviour disorder
Provision of cancer services and cancer networksSpace occupying lesion / progressive unilateral weakness
Provision of emergency ophthalmic servicesChild with red swelling around one eye
Provision of emergency ophthalmic services for sight-threatening red eyeAcute or chronic red eye
Provision of emergency ophthalmic services for the management of acute severe injury including chemical burnsAcute trauma to the eye
Provision of health services for long-term conditionsPainful hands in the cold
Provision of paediatric surgical and emergency services nationallyChronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents, Acute abdominal pain in children and adolescents
Provision of paediatric surgical and oncology services nationally; access and referral for childrenAbdominal or inguinal lump
Provision of preschool vision screening including well child, Plunket, and B4 school screening to detect children with vision and ocular abnormalitiesInfant with strabismus
Provision of rescue helicopter services across New ZealandPenetrating chest trauma
Provision of services for temporal artery biopsySudden loss of vision and headache
Provision of stroke services on a national scaleStroke / TIA / sudden onset unilateral weakness
Provision, audit and monitoring of dialysis and renal transplantation servicesChronic kidney disease / asymptomatic worsening renal function
Public education re inhalational hazardsWorsening shortness of breath
Public health controls of STIs, safe sex and contact tracingFebrile returning traveller
Public health implications including notification and contact tracing of sore throats in high risk households/whānauSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Public health issues relating to additives in food and water at a population health level (e.g. folic acid, fluoride)Child with abnormal gait
Public health systems to manage outbreaks of viral conjunctivitisWatery eye in an infant
Purpose of government enquiries and characteristics of effective submissionsAlcohol
Radiation risk from imaging for women of reproductive ageAcute abdominal pain
Rationale for routine screening for diabetes in pregnancyDiabetes in pregnancy
Recognise the morbidity and mortality rates from mental health disorders in the puerperiumPostpartum care
Relationship between maternal age and the prevalence of trisomy 21Fetal health
Relationship of alcohol abuse and interpersonal violenceHand injury
Residential care: present needs, future requirementsUnexplained loss of consciousness
Resource constraints and the effect on waiting lists for joint replacementKnee pain
Rheumatic heart disease: high risk populations, risk factors for individualsValvular heart disease
Rising prevalence of obesity among childrenOsteomyelitis
Risk factors for mental impairment and dementiaDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Risk of CHD in babies of diabetic mothersInfant or child with a murmur
Risk of CHD in first degree relativesInfant or child with a murmur
Risk of late pregnancy bleeding and most common contributing factorsVaginal bleeding late in pregnancy
Risks and benefits of screening for colon cancer on a population basisRectal bleeding
Risks associated with personality disordersPersonality disorder
Role as an advocate in tobacco controlChronic shortness of breath
Role of Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in promoting breastfeeding, and importance of support of partner and familyPostpartum care
Role of community organisationsChronic sputum production
Role of dietary supplementation with iodine in pregnancyHypothyroidism
Role of ectopic pregnancy as cause of maternal mortalityGynaecological abdominal pain
Role of medical professionals in the communityChildhood obesity
Role of obesity in endometrial hyperplasia/malignancyHeavy menstrual periods
Role of obesity in impaired glucose tolerance and subsequent gestational or type 2 diabetesDiabetes in pregnancy
Role of public health services in management of tuberculosis including contact tracing and directly observed therapyHaemoptysis and abnormal chest X-ray
Role of regular clinical breast examination and mammogramsGenetic testing information, Breast lump and screening
Role of routine condom use to reduce transmission of sexually transmitted infectionsAbnormal cervical smear result
Role of smoking on etiology of ectopic pregnancyGynaecological abdominal pain
Role of the HPV vaccination and potential impact on the epidemiology of cervical cancerAbnormal cervical smear result
Role of the brief intervention in alcohol abuseHand injury
Roles of Child, Youth and Family/Puawaitahi servicesFracture
Safe sex educationDysuria
Science of screening testsBreast lump and screening
Science of screening tests; criteria required to institute a screening programmeGenetic testing information
Screening - the difference between opportunistic and organised screening, what is required for screening to be effective, factors influencing cost-effectiveness, the advantages and disadvantages of locating screening in primary health careAAA screening
Screening for rheumatic fever (and sequalae)Fever and a new murmur
Screening for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemiaObesity
Screening for cancer of the cervix: rationale, requirements for success, performance of the New Zealand programmeAbnormal cervical smear result
Screening for congenital heart defectsFever and a new murmur
Screening for hepatocellular carcinomaChronic liver disease
Screening for risk factorsAcute chest pain
Screening of hearing in primary schoolsGlue ear
Screening programmes for colorectal cancer including analysis of risks and benefitsBowel obstruction
Screening throughout pregnancy for early symptoms and signs of pre-eclampsia and preterm labourLate pregnancy complications
Sensitivity and specificity of screening tests for ovarian cancer in general and high risk population (CA-125, transvaginal ultrasound)Postmenopausal bleeding
Sequelae of rheumatic fever and screening and/or treatment optionsFever and a new murmur
Sequelae of severe head injury: physical, cognitive and psychiatric complications; rehabilitationAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Service provision for incontinenceUrinary incontinence in women
Service provision for those with dementia and their carersDementia / disturbance of memory / cognitive function
Service provision in the health service: criteria for urgent referral (patient focus)Gross haematuria
Service provision in the health service: criteria for urgent referral, prioritisation of medical imagingPupil abnormality
Services for those with hearing impairmentHearing loss
Skin infections common in New Zealand and epidemiology of post-streptococcal nephritisChild with generalised swelling
Smoking as the most important environmental trigger for rheumatoid arthritisSwollen and tender joints
Smoking: risk/lifestyle factors and preventive strategiesDysphagia
Social and economic determinants of healthChronic sputum production
Social and ethnic distribution of harm caused by alcoholAlcohol
Social and ethnical barriers to access to healthcareHeart failure
Social care structure for dementiaPneumonia
Social determinants of rheumatic feverChild with sore joints
Social determinants of diseaseUpper airway disease
Social determinants of rheumatic feverSore throat management in the New Zealand context
Social determinants of skin and soft tissue infection (including consideration of overcrowding, cost of treatments)Skin and soft tissue infection
Social impact of trauma, particularly in younger patientsAltered level of consciousness in an adult
Societal costs of injuries and associated long-term disabilityForearm / wrist injury
Societal determined factors associated with non-accidental injury and family violence (e.g. deprivation)Infant or child with easy bruising
Socio-economic determinants of healthSudden onset shortness of breath
Standardised pre-admission forms and protocolsPre-admission and surgical risk assessment
Strategies for preventing burns in the homeBurns
Strategies for preventing cutting and piercing injuries